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Vertebrate Classes All in Chordate Phylum. All vertebrates have…. Bilateral symmetry Fully developed coelom Closed circulatory system Endoskeletal spinal cord (vertebrate). Types of Fish. Lamprey (jawless). bony fish. Shark (cartilage). Lampreys/Hagfish.

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Vertebrate Classes All in Chordate Phylum

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Vertebrate classes all in chordate phylum l.jpg

Vertebrate ClassesAll in Chordate Phylum


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All vertebrates have…

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Fully developed coelom

  • Closed circulatory system

  • Endoskeletal spinal cord (vertebrate)


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Types of Fish

Lamprey (jawless)

bony fish

Shark (cartilage)


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Lampreys/Hagfish

  • Lampreys attach to fish-parasites

  • Have “round mouths”- no scales

  • Hagfish are Scavengers of dead and dying fish on ocean bottom


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Sharks, Skates, Rays

  • Jaws

  • The shark’s mouth has 6 to 20 rows of backward-pointing teeth

  • They can detect blood from an injured animal as far as 500 miles away

  • No swim bladder


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Bony Fish

Most are familiar fishes and include snake-like eels, salmon, trout, bass, herring, and lantern fish

(most fish we eat)


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Fish

Fishes are the most numerous of all vertebrates and most widespread in their distribution


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Obtain Oxygen

  • Fish obtain O2 through their gills

  • Fish can extract 85 % of the oxygen passing over the gills

  • Blood goes to the gills, is oxygenated and sent to all parts of the body

  • Single loop circulation in fish


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Fish have a two chambered heart – blood is passed over the gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.


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Fish - 2 chamber heart

1 atrium – makes sure blood is always available for ventricle

1 ventricle – pumps blood to gills and then to the body


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2 chamber heart

Some problems:

Slow delivery

MUCH more energy required to move on land (or in air) = more O2 needed faster


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Fish Reproduction

Usually external fertilization

Large numbers of eggs are fertilized during Spawning – when fish reproduce


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Salmon Video at National Geographic


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Barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis)

Shark Reproduction

Skate

Sharks, Skates and Rays fertilization is internal-most are born live

Some sharks lay eggs


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Variety of Rays

There are many different

types of rays including

stingrays,

electric rays,

butterfly rays, round rays,

manta rays, guitarfish,

and sawfish.


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Early aquatic adaptations

  • Teeth (everyone) – evolved from skin

    --shift from scavenging (lancelets) to predation (lampreys)

  • Jaws (sharks and bony fish)

    --provide chewing / biting force


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Later aquatic adaptations

  • Bony fish evolve swim bladder

    --air bag that allows fish to move up and down in water-called buoyancy

    --sharks sink when not swimming

  • Swim bladder adapted to be lungs on land


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Transitional fish / amphibian?

  • Tiktaalik roseae


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Amphibians

frog

salamander


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Amphibians on land

  • Four legs to walk on land-These are adapted fish fins at right angles from body

  • Ectotherms

  • Hibernate or Estivate depending on climate


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3 Chamber Heart

O2 through lungs and moist skin called cutaneous respiration

2 atria – 1 from body (deoxygenated), 1 from lungs (oxygenated)

1 ventricle – pumps blood to lungs and body


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3 chamber heart

Problem solved:

Blood getting to body cells faster (heart pumps directly to body)

New problem:

Deoxygenated blood mixes with oxygenated blood


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Amphibian limitations

  • Must live in warm, wet areas for 2 reasons

    1) External fertilization - Reproduce in water (lay eggs there)

    egg  tadpole  young frog  adult frog

    2) Go to water to keep skin moist


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Bullfrogs Eat Everything


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Reptiles


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Reptiles

turtle

crocodile

snake


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Claws

  • Strong, bony skeletons and toes with claws

    • Claws-aid in climbing, digging and movement in various terrains


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Reptiles further on land

  • Evolved to live entirely on land

    1) Scales to prevent water loss

    2) Laying eggs that can survive on land = amniotic egg - Internal fertilization


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Scales


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Eggs

  • Amniotic egg – has all the water and nutrients inside for embryo to survive


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Chameleon Babies


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Reptile limitations

  • Must live in warm areas

  • Limited by ectothermy


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Regulating body temperature

  • Ectotherm (“cold-blooded”) –

    animal does not maintain a body temperature

    outside temp = body temp


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Ectothermy

  • Become sluggish in very cold temperature

  • Bask in the sun or seek shade


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Pros

No energy needed to keep warm inside

Cons

Restricted to warm climates only

Active only during day

Ectothermy


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Heart

  • Ventricle of heart partly divided by a septum

  • Still incomplete separation of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood

  • Crocodiles and alligators

    have a ventricle that is totally separated into two pumping chambers


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Circulation

Double loop circulation


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Transitional bird / reptile

  • Archaeopteryx


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Birds


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Birds

  • Most capable of flight

    • Feathers, wings, hollow bones, no teeth

  • Amniotic egg like reptiles


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Birds all over land

  • Can live in any environment (dry / wet or warm / cold)

  • To help conserve body heat, birds fluff out there feathers to insulation.

  • endothermy is crucial adaptation


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Endothermy

  • Endotherm (“warm-blooded”) –keeping a constant body temperature

    Pros

  • Can be active even in colder biomes

  • Can be active at night (nocturnal predators)

    Cons

  • Requires lots of energy (must find food often)


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Hummingbirds


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4 chamber heart

2 atria – 1 from body (deoxygenated), 1 from lungs (oxygenated)

2 ventricles – 1 pumps to lungs , 1 pumps to body


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4 chamber heart

  • Even more energy needed for cells

    • Birds = energy for flight

    • Mammals = energy for large brains

  • NO mixture of blood in 4 chamber heart


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Another comparison

3 chamber heart

(mixing problem)

4 chamber heart

(no mixing problem)


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Digestive and Excretory system

  • Food passes from the mouth cavity straight to the esophagus.

  • Enlargement of the esophagus called the crop stores and moistens food.

  • Then passes through the gizzard, a muscular organ that kneads and crushes the food


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Respiratory System

  • Air enters nostrils at base of beakDown trachea past song boxenters two primary bronchiito lungs

  • 75% bypasses the lungs and flows directly to posterior to sacssacs connect with air spaces in bones, filling the hollow bones with air.

  • When bird exhales the carbon dioxide rich air from the lungs, oxygen rich air is forced out of the posterior air sacs into lungs.


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Transitional reptile / mammal

  • Platypus (egg-laying mammal)


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Mammals

  • Cenozoic era – “Age of Mammals”


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Mammals


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Evolution and Characteristics

Mammals belong to the class Mammalia, which includes 4000 species

Most dominant land animals on earth.


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Circulatory System

  • Mammalian heart has 4 chambers

  • Mammals have a muscle , the diaphragm that aids in breathing


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Two feature that distinguish Mammals from other vertebrates are that they all have hair and they produce milk.


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Mammal Orders

There are 19 orders of mammals in the class Mammalia in which 17 nourish unborn young in the placenta, egg laying monotremes and marsupials


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Marsupials

  • Marsupials give birth to tiny immature young that crawl to a pouch on the mothers belly immediately after they are born.


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Characteristics of Placental Mammals

  • Placental mammals carry unborn young in the uterus until young can survive in the wild.

  • Oxygen and nutrients are transferred from mother’s blood to baby’s blood


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Placental Characteristics

  • The placenta is a membrane providing nutrients and waste & gas exchange between the mother and developing young

  • Gestation period -is the time which mammals develop in mother’s uterus


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Mammals

  • Also endothermic (not closely related to birds though)

  • Hair helps to insulate, maintain internal body temperature


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Mammals

  • Large brain size (learning / communicating)

  • Challenge: time needed for brain development

  • Solution: keep offspring inside mom

  • Solution: intensive parental care early on (including milk from mammary glands)


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Human evolution

  • 1) Opposable thumbs

  • 2) Bipedalism

  • 3) Massive increase in brain size

  • 4) Culture


Mammalian videos http video nationalgeographic com video player animals index html l.jpg

Mammalian Videoshttp://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/index.html


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