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Vertebrate Classes All in Chordate Phylum. All vertebrates have…. Bilateral symmetry Fully developed coelom Closed circulatory system Endoskeletal spinal cord (vertebrate). Types of Fish. Lamprey (jawless). bony fish. Shark (cartilage). Lampreys/Hagfish.

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Vertebrate classes all in chordate phylum l.jpg

Vertebrate ClassesAll in Chordate Phylum


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All vertebrates have…

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Fully developed coelom

  • Closed circulatory system

  • Endoskeletal spinal cord (vertebrate)


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Types of Fish

Lamprey (jawless)

bony fish

Shark (cartilage)


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Lampreys/Hagfish

  • Lampreys attach to fish-parasites

  • Have “round mouths”- no scales

  • Hagfish are Scavengers of dead and dying fish on ocean bottom


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Sharks, Skates, Rays

  • Jaws

  • The shark’s mouth has 6 to 20 rows of backward-pointing teeth

  • They can detect blood from an injured animal as far as 500 miles away

  • No swim bladder


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Bony Fish

Most are familiar fishes and include snake-like eels, salmon, trout, bass, herring, and lantern fish

(most fish we eat)


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Fish

Fishes are the most numerous of all vertebrates and most widespread in their distribution


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Obtain Oxygen

  • Fish obtain O2 through their gills

  • Fish can extract 85 % of the oxygen passing over the gills

  • Blood goes to the gills, is oxygenated and sent to all parts of the body

  • Single loop circulation in fish


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Fish have a two chambered heart – blood is passed over the gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.


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Fish - 2 chamber heart gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

1 atrium – makes sure blood is always available for ventricle

1 ventricle – pumps blood to gills and then to the body


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2 chamber heart gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

Some problems:

Slow delivery

MUCH more energy required to move on land (or in air) = more O2 needed faster


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Fish Reproduction gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

Usually external fertilization

Large numbers of eggs are fertilized during Spawning – when fish reproduce


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Salmon Video at National Geographic gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.


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Barndoor skate gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. (Dipturus laevis)

Shark Reproduction

Skate

Sharks, Skates and Rays fertilization is internal-most are born live

Some sharks lay eggs


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Variety of Rays gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

There are many different

types of rays including

stingrays,

electric rays,

butterfly rays, round rays,

manta rays, guitarfish,

and sawfish.


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Early aquatic adaptations gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Teeth (everyone) – evolved from skin

    --shift from scavenging (lancelets) to predation (lampreys)

  • Jaws (sharks and bony fish)

    --provide chewing / biting force


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Later aquatic adaptations gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Bony fish evolve swim bladder

    --air bag that allows fish to move up and down in water-called buoyancy

    --sharks sink when not swimming

  • Swim bladder adapted to be lungs on land


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Transitional fish / amphibian? gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Tiktaalik roseae


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Amphibians gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

frog

salamander


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Amphibians on land gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Four legs to walk on land-These are adapted fish fins at right angles from body

  • Ectotherms

  • Hibernate or Estivate depending on climate


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3 Chamber Heart gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

O2 through lungs and moist skin called cutaneous respiration

2 atria – 1 from body (deoxygenated), 1 from lungs (oxygenated)

1 ventricle – pumps blood to lungs and body


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3 chamber heart gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

Problem solved:

Blood getting to body cells faster (heart pumps directly to body)

New problem:

Deoxygenated blood mixes with oxygenated blood


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Amphibian limitations gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Must live in warm, wet areas for 2 reasons

    1) External fertilization - Reproduce in water (lay eggs there)

    egg  tadpole  young frog  adult frog

    2) Go to water to keep skin moist


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Bullfrogs Eat Everything gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.


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Reptiles gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.


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Reptiles gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

turtle

crocodile

snake


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Claws gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Strong, bony skeletons and toes with claws

    • Claws-aid in climbing, digging and movement in various terrains


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Reptiles further on land gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Evolved to live entirely on land

    1) Scales to prevent water loss

    2) Laying eggs that can survive on land = amniotic egg - Internal fertilization


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Scales gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.


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Eggs gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Amniotic egg – has all the water and nutrients inside for embryo to survive


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Chameleon gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. Babies


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Reptile limitations gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Must live in warm areas

  • Limited by ectothermy


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Regulating body temperature gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Ectotherm (“cold-blooded”) –

    animal does not maintain a body temperature

    outside temp = body temp


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Ectothermy gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Become sluggish in very cold temperature

  • Bask in the sun or seek shade


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Pros gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

No energy needed to keep warm inside

Cons

Restricted to warm climates only

Active only during day

Ectothermy


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Heart gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Ventricle of heart partly divided by a septum

  • Still incomplete separation of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood

  • Crocodiles and alligators

    have a ventricle that is totally separated into two pumping chambers


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Circulation gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

Double loop circulation


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Transitional bird / reptile gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Archaeopteryx


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Birds gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.


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Birds gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Most capable of flight

    • Feathers, wings, hollow bones, no teeth

  • Amniotic egg like reptiles


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Birds all over land gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Can live in any environment (dry / wet or warm / cold)

  • To help conserve body heat, birds fluff out there feathers to insulation.

  • endothermy is crucial adaptation


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Endothermy gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Endotherm (“warm-blooded”) –keeping a constant body temperature

    Pros

  • Can be active even in colder biomes

  • Can be active at night (nocturnal predators)

    Cons

  • Requires lots of energy (must find food often)


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Hummingbirds gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.


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4 chamber heart gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

2 atria – 1 from body (deoxygenated), 1 from lungs (oxygenated)

2 ventricles – 1 pumps to lungs , 1 pumps to body


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4 chamber heart gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Even more energy needed for cells

    • Birds = energy for flight

    • Mammals = energy for large brains

  • NO mixture of blood in 4 chamber heart


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Another comparison gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

3 chamber heart

(mixing problem)

4 chamber heart

(no mixing problem)


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Digestive and Excretory system gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Food passes from the mouth cavity straight to the esophagus.

  • Enlargement of the esophagus called the crop stores and moistens food.

  • Then passes through the gizzard, a muscular organ that kneads and crushes the food


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Respiratory System gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Air enters nostrils at base of beakDown trachea past song boxenters two primary bronchiito lungs

  • 75% bypasses the lungs and flows directly to posterior to sacssacs connect with air spaces in bones, filling the hollow bones with air.

  • When bird exhales the carbon dioxide rich air from the lungs, oxygen rich air is forced out of the posterior air sacs into lungs.


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Transitional reptile / mammal gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Platypus (egg-laying mammal)


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Mammals gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Cenozoic era – “Age of Mammals”


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Mammals gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.


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Evolution and Characteristics gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

Mammals belong to the class Mammalia, which includes 4000 species

Most dominant land animals on earth.


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Circulatory System gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Mammalian heart has 4 chambers

  • Mammals have a muscle , the diaphragm that aids in breathing


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Two gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.feature that distinguish Mammals from other vertebrates are that they all have hair and they produce milk.


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Mammal Orders gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

There are 19 orders of mammals in the class Mammalia in which 17 nourish unborn young in the placenta, egg laying monotremes and marsupials


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Marsupials gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Marsupials give birth to tiny immature young that crawl to a pouch on the mothers belly immediately after they are born.


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Characteristics of gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.Placental Mammals

  • Placental mammals carry unborn young in the uterus until young can survive in the wild.

  • Oxygen and nutrients are transferred from mother’s blood to baby’s blood


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Placental Characteristics gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • The placenta is a membrane providing nutrients and waste & gas exchange between the mother and developing young

  • Gestation period -is the time which mammals develop in mother’s uterus


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Mammals gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Also endothermic (not closely related to birds though)

  • Hair helps to insulate, maintain internal body temperature


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Mammals gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • Large brain size (learning / communicating)

  • Challenge: time needed for brain development

  • Solution: keep offspring inside mom

  • Solution: intensive parental care early on (including milk from mammary glands)


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Human evolution gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

  • 1) Opposable thumbs

  • 2) Bipedalism

  • 3) Massive increase in brain size

  • 4) Culture


Mammalian videos http video nationalgeographic com video player animals index html l.jpg
Mammalian Videos gills where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/index.html


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