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Development of the Moored Buoy Array for Climate and the Integrated Observing System. Michael J. McPhaden NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Gary Meyers CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research. Indian Ocean Climate Science Drivers.

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development of the moored buoy array for climate and the integrated observing system
Development of the Moored Buoy Array for Climate and the Integrated Observing System

Michael J. McPhaden

NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory

Gary Meyers

CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research

indian ocean climate science drivers
Indian Ocean Climate Science Drivers

Improved description, understanding and ability to predict:

Seasonal monsoon variability, Intra-seasonal oscillations and far field impacts

Monsoon <=> ENSO <=> Indian Ocean Dipole interactions

Warming trends since the 1970s

Unique ocean circulation

indian ocean climate science drivers1
Indian Ocean Climate Science Drivers

Improved description, understanding and ability to predict:

Seasonal monsoon variability, Intra-seasonal oscillations and far field impacts

Monsoon <=> ENSO <=> Indian Ocean Dipole interactions

Warming trends since the 1970s

Unique ocean circulation

indian ocean climate science drivers2

P McIntosh

Indian Ocean Climate Science Drivers

Improved description, understanding and ability to predict:

Seasonal monsoon variability, Intra-seasonal oscillations and far field impacts

Monsoon <=> ENSO <=> Indian Ocean Dipole interactions

Warming trends since the 1970s

Unique ocean circulation

indian ocean climate science drivers3
Indian Ocean Climate Science Drivers

Improved description, understanding and ability to predict:

Seasonal monsoon variability, Intra-seasonal oscillations and far field impacts

Monsoon <=> ENSO <=> Indian Ocean Dipole interactions

Warming trends since the 1970s

Unique ocean circulation

in situ integrated indian ocean observing system
In situ, integrated Indian Ocean observing system
  • Standard elements
    • XBT lines
    • Argo floats
    • Surface drifter
  • Key new element is a basin-scale array of moorings
  • Biological sensors Boundary arrays
  • Process studies

ftp://ftp.marine.csiro.au/pub/meyers/Implementation%20Plan/

dynamical model design studies
Dynamical Model Design Studies

Courtesy of Gabe Vecchi, GFDL

Log(Signal to Noise) 1986-2002 100m Temperature Anomaly “O.I.” of sub-sampled data

rationale for flux sites
Rationale for Flux Sites

Courtesy of Lisan Yu, WHOI

moored measurement suite all data in real time via argos
Moored Measurement Suite(All data in real-time via Argos)

Standard

  • Met: Wind, RH, AT, SWR, Rain
  • Ocean: SST, SSS, T(z:10 depths), S(z: 5 depths), P (z: 2 depths); v (10 m)

Flux Sites: Standard plus--

  • Met: LWR, BP
  • Ocean: Additional T(z), S(z), v (z) in upper 100 m

TRITON (JAMSTEC) and ATLAS (PMEL) moorings have equivalent measurement capabilities

orv sagar kanya cruise 9 october 17 november 2004
ORV Sagar Kanya Cruise9 October-17 November 2004
  • 41 Day Cruise
  • 4 ATLAS & 1 ADCP mooring

PMEL in collaboration with the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) and the National Center for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa, India.

existing and deployed moorings 2005
Existing and Deployed Moorings, 2005

3 additional moorings under discussion

indian ocean moored buoy data assembly center dac
Indian Ocean Moored Buoy Data Assembly Center (DAC)
  • Modeled after TAO/ TRITON and PIRATA data processing and dissemination systems.
  • PMEL and JAMSTEC initial contributors.
  • Hosted at PMEL; mirror sites outside the US (e.g. INCOIS in India?).
  • Data policy: all data from the array will be freely and openly available without restriction

http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/disdel/disdel-v57.html

argo strategy discussion 450 needed for 3 by 3 deg coverage
Argo—strategy discussion(450 needed for 3 by 3 deg. coverage)
  • Essential part of the IO CLIVAR—variability of water mass composition
  • Need shallow mixed layer resolution (barrier layers)
  • Need deep calibrations (below Red-Sea Water)
  • Need re-seeding in divergence regions
  • Little gained by 5-day sampling

393 active

slide16

Argo sampling strategies and lifetimes

(1) 10-day sampling, all profiles to 2000 m:      161 profiles possible (= 4.4 years)

(2) 5-day sampling, all profiles to 2000 m:      175 profiles possible (= 2.4 years)

(3) 10-day sampling, park 1000 m, every 4th profile to 2000m:      224 profiles possible (= 6.1 years)

(4) 5-day sampling, park 1000 m every 4th profile to 2000 m:      252 profiles possible (= 3.4 years)

India: mode 4

USA (U.Washington): mode 3

future argo taking account of planned deployments
Future Argo—taking account of planned deployments
  • INCOIS will be proactive to publicize deployment opportunities
  • Need 120/ yr for full coverage
  • Re-seeding of divergence regimes
  • Add other sensors (O2..)?
xbt lines
XBT lines

High priority* lines

IX-01, IX-08,

IX-09N/IX-10E,

IX-12,

IX-15/IX-21,

IX22 and PX-02

*see report for criteria and assessment

IX14 recommended but not reported to JCOMM

XBT workshop Oct 05

slide19
Drifters—Percent chance that a 5°x 5° square will be occupied by at least one float in September 2005 (R. Lumkin NOAA/AOML).
  • 5°x5° sampling established >20 years ago for calibr. satellite SST
  • Need full implementation
  • Re-seeding of northern (upwelling) areas (clouds!)
  • (difficulties shipping through India!!)
  • No sampling strategy for measurement of currents—need for operational oceanography
data management progress and shortfall
Data managementProgress and shortfall
  • XBT—Indian Ocean Thermal Archive (IOTA) CSIRO/BoM
  • Historical T/S—CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas (CARS)
  • Argo T/S—Int’l DAC, INCOIS, APDRC
  • Moorings—IOMB DAC PMEL/JAMSTEC

What’s missing? Management of the integrated data set—a one-stop shop for research

Enhanced capacity building—ODIN-Indio for multi-disciplinary applications

the major issues that have to be resolved to fully establish the mooring array include
The major issues that have to be resolved to fully establish the mooring array include:
  • Ship time (~180 days)INCOIS and CLIVAR websites will show cruise opportunities
  • Fishing vandalism (or frequ. XBTs off Sumatra/glider?)
  • Operational funding
  • International coordination
  • System integration (e.g. commonalities with multi-hazard warning system)
  • Data management
cross over issues
Cross-over issues
  • Observing system in the southern part of the S. Indian gyre hasn’t had a lot of attention
  • What are the key research issues for this region?
challenges ship time
Challenges: Ship Time

Requirements:

  • 180 days per year (est.) to service entire array
  • Assumes 1-year mooring design lifetime and semi-annual servicing cruises
  • Repeat cruises are highest priority
  • Ships must be able to deploy and recover deep ocean moorings
challenges international coordination
Challenges: International Coordination

Partnerships are Needed to Implement and Sustain an Indian Ocean Moored Buoy Array

  • Partnerships between institutions from nations within and outside the Indian Ocean region are need to implement and sustain the array.
  • These partnerships must be long term to ensure stable base of support
  • Sustained commitment of resources (funding, mooring technology, ship time, personnel) is required
  • Regular technical and scientific exchange is needed to promote Indian Ocean science and array implementation goals
  • Technical training and capacity building for countries without current capabilities is required to ensure broad participation
challenges developing a multi hazard observing system
Challenges: Developing a Multi-Hazard Observing System

Integration of the Ocean Observing System for Climate with that for Short Term Warnings and Forecasts (weather, storm surge, tsunami, etc) is Necessary

  • Broadens the constituency for all components of the ocean observing system
  • Shared use of scarce resources (e.g. ship time and personnel) for implementation and maintenance maximizes scientific return on investment.
  • Shared use of data collection platforms (e.g. moorings) for related or compatible measurements can lead to efficiencies in array design for different purposes (e.g. tsunami and climate).
  • Technical training and capacity building can be coordinated where similar technologies are used for multiple purposes.
challenges funding
Challenges: Funding

President Bush’s FY06 Budget for NOAAClimate Observations and Services

  • “$3.2 million to expand the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean array and the Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic into the Indian Ocean. This expansion will enhance NOAA\'s capability to accurately document the state of ocean climactic conditions and improve seasonal forecasting capability.”
  • (http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2386.htm)
  • Other activities covered by this funding:
  • Support the technological development of the next generation of moored buoys.
  • Add salinity sensors to the TAO array to improve seasonal-interannual forecasting.
  • Upgrades for 4 TAO and 3 PIRATA moorings to ocean reference station quality for satellite and model research
  • Providing 4 additional buoys for the PIRATA array in the hurricane-genesis region of the Atlantic Ocean for improved understanding of ocean-atmosphere interactions on hurricane development.
challenges fishing vandalism
Challenges: Fishing Vandalism

Tuna Catch 1989-1993

Yellowfin

Long Line

Purse Seine &Pole/Line

Skipjack

Bigeye

  • 1.5°N, 80.5°E ATLAS stopped transmitting on 23 Jan 05 after drifting 35 nm to SW.
  • 0°, 80.5°E lost winds and SW radiation on 21 Mar 05.
slide29
Challenges to Implementing and Sustaining a Moored Buoy Observing System for the Indian Ocean: Summary
  • Ship Time
  • Funding
  • International Coordination
  • Capacity Building
  • Data Management
  • Fishing Vandalism
  • Integratation into a Multi-Hazard Observing System
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