Development of the moored buoy array for climate and the integrated observing system
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Development of the Moored Buoy Array for Climate and the Integrated Observing System. Michael J. McPhaden NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Gary Meyers CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research. Indian Ocean Climate Science Drivers.

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Development of the moored buoy array for climate and the integrated observing system
Development of the Moored Buoy Array for Climate and the Integrated Observing System

Michael J. McPhaden

NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory

Gary Meyers

CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research


Indian ocean climate science drivers
Indian Ocean Climate Integrated Observing SystemScience Drivers

Improved description, understanding and ability to predict:

Seasonal monsoon variability, Intra-seasonal oscillations and far field impacts

Monsoon <=> ENSO <=> Indian Ocean Dipole interactions

Warming trends since the 1970s

Unique ocean circulation


Indian ocean climate science drivers1
Indian Ocean Climate Integrated Observing SystemScience Drivers

Improved description, understanding and ability to predict:

Seasonal monsoon variability, Intra-seasonal oscillations and far field impacts

Monsoon <=> ENSO <=> Indian Ocean Dipole interactions

Warming trends since the 1970s

Unique ocean circulation


Indian ocean climate science drivers2

P McIntosh Integrated Observing System

Indian Ocean Climate Science Drivers

Improved description, understanding and ability to predict:

Seasonal monsoon variability, Intra-seasonal oscillations and far field impacts

Monsoon <=> ENSO <=> Indian Ocean Dipole interactions

Warming trends since the 1970s

Unique ocean circulation


Indian ocean climate science drivers3
Indian Ocean Climate Integrated Observing SystemScience Drivers

Improved description, understanding and ability to predict:

Seasonal monsoon variability, Intra-seasonal oscillations and far field impacts

Monsoon <=> ENSO <=> Indian Ocean Dipole interactions

Warming trends since the 1970s

Unique ocean circulation


In situ integrated indian ocean observing system
In situ, integrated Indian Ocean observing system Integrated Observing System

  • Standard elements

    • XBT lines

    • Argo floats

    • Surface drifter

  • Key new element is a basin-scale array of moorings

  • Biological sensors Boundary arrays

  • Process studies

ftp://ftp.marine.csiro.au/pub/meyers/Implementation%20Plan/


Draft strategy for indian ocean moored buoy array
Draft Strategy for Indian Ocean Moored Buoy Array Integrated Observing System

30 TAO/Triton 5 ADCP 8 Flux


Dynamical model design studies
Dynamical Model Design Studies Integrated Observing System

Courtesy of Gabe Vecchi, GFDL

Log(Signal to Noise) 1986-2002 100m Temperature Anomaly “O.I.” of sub-sampled data


Rationale for flux sites
Rationale for Flux Sites Integrated Observing System

Courtesy of Lisan Yu, WHOI


Moored measurement suite all data in real time via argos
Moored Measurement Suite Integrated Observing System(All data in real-time via Argos)

Standard

  • Met: Wind, RH, AT, SWR, Rain

  • Ocean: SST, SSS, T(z:10 depths), S(z: 5 depths), P (z: 2 depths); v (10 m)

    Flux Sites: Standard plus--

  • Met: LWR, BP

  • Ocean: Additional T(z), S(z), v (z) in upper 100 m

    TRITON (JAMSTEC) and ATLAS (PMEL) moorings have equivalent measurement capabilities


Orv sagar kanya cruise 9 october 17 november 2004
ORV Sagar Kanya Cruise Integrated Observing System9 October-17 November 2004

  • 41 Day Cruise

  • 4 ATLAS & 1 ADCP mooring

PMEL in collaboration with the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) and the National Center for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa, India.


First data from indian ocean atlas moorings deployed 22 october 2004
First Data from Integrated Observing SystemIndian Ocean ATLAS MooringsDeployed22 October 2004


Existing and deployed moorings 2005
Existing and Deployed Moorings, 2005 Integrated Observing System

3 additional moorings under discussion


Indian ocean moored buoy data assembly center dac
Indian Ocean Moored Buoy Data Assembly Center (DAC) Integrated Observing System

  • Modeled after TAO/ TRITON and PIRATA data processing and dissemination systems.

  • PMEL and JAMSTEC initial contributors.

  • Hosted at PMEL; mirror sites outside the US (e.g. INCOIS in India?).

  • Data policy: all data from the array will be freely and openly available without restriction

http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/disdel/disdel-v57.html


Argo strategy discussion 450 needed for 3 by 3 deg coverage
Argo—strategy discussion Integrated Observing System(450 needed for 3 by 3 deg. coverage)

  • Essential part of the IO CLIVAR—variability of water mass composition

  • Need shallow mixed layer resolution (barrier layers)

  • Need deep calibrations (below Red-Sea Water)

  • Need re-seeding in divergence regions

  • Little gained by 5-day sampling

393 active


Argo sampling strategies and lifetimes Integrated Observing System

(1) 10-day sampling, all profiles to 2000 m:      161 profiles possible (= 4.4 years)

(2) 5-day sampling, all profiles to 2000 m:      175 profiles possible (= 2.4 years)

(3) 10-day sampling, park 1000 m, every 4th profile to 2000m:      224 profiles possible (= 6.1 years)

(4) 5-day sampling, park 1000 m every 4th profile to 2000 m:      252 profiles possible (= 3.4 years)

India: mode 4

USA (U.Washington): mode 3


Future argo taking account of planned deployments
Future Argo—taking account of planned deployments Integrated Observing System

  • INCOIS will be proactive to publicize deployment opportunities

  • Need 120/ yr for full coverage

  • Re-seeding of divergence regimes

  • Add other sensors (O2..)?


Xbt lines
XBT lines Integrated Observing System

High priority* lines

IX-01, IX-08,

IX-09N/IX-10E,

IX-12,

IX-15/IX-21,

IX22 and PX-02

*see report for criteria and assessment

IX14 recommended but not reported to JCOMM

XBT workshop Oct 05


Drifters— Integrated Observing SystemPercent chance that a 5°x 5° square will be occupied by at least one float in September 2005 (R. Lumkin NOAA/AOML).

  • 5°x5° sampling established >20 years ago for calibr. satellite SST

  • Need full implementation

  • Re-seeding of northern (upwelling) areas (clouds!)

  • (difficulties shipping through India!!)

  • No sampling strategy for measurement of currents—need for operational oceanography


Data management progress and shortfall
Data management Integrated Observing SystemProgress and shortfall

  • XBT—Indian Ocean Thermal Archive (IOTA) CSIRO/BoM

  • Historical T/S—CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas (CARS)

  • Argo T/S—Int’l DAC, INCOIS, APDRC

  • Moorings—IOMB DAC PMEL/JAMSTEC

    What’s missing? Management of the integrated data set—a one-stop shop for research

    Enhanced capacity building—ODIN-Indio for multi-disciplinary applications


The major issues that have to be resolved to fully establish the mooring array include
The major issues that have to be resolved to fully establish the mooring array include:

  • Ship time (~180 days)INCOIS and CLIVAR websites will show cruise opportunities

  • Fishing vandalism (or frequ. XBTs off Sumatra/glider?)

  • Operational funding

  • International coordination

  • System integration (e.g. commonalities with multi-hazard warning system)

  • Data management


Cross over issues
Cross-over issues the mooring array include:

  • Observing system in the southern part of the S. Indian gyre hasn’t had a lot of attention

  • What are the key research issues for this region?


Challenges ship time
Challenges: Ship Time the mooring array include:

Requirements:

  • 180 days per year (est.) to service entire array

  • Assumes 1-year mooring design lifetime and semi-annual servicing cruises

  • Repeat cruises are highest priority

  • Ships must be able to deploy and recover deep ocean moorings


Challenges international coordination
Challenges: International Coordination the mooring array include:

Partnerships are Needed to Implement and Sustain an Indian Ocean Moored Buoy Array

  • Partnerships between institutions from nations within and outside the Indian Ocean region are need to implement and sustain the array.

  • These partnerships must be long term to ensure stable base of support

  • Sustained commitment of resources (funding, mooring technology, ship time, personnel) is required

  • Regular technical and scientific exchange is needed to promote Indian Ocean science and array implementation goals

  • Technical training and capacity building for countries without current capabilities is required to ensure broad participation


Challenges developing a multi hazard observing system
Challenges: Developing a Multi-Hazard Observing System the mooring array include:

Integration of the Ocean Observing System for Climate with that for Short Term Warnings and Forecasts (weather, storm surge, tsunami, etc) is Necessary

  • Broadens the constituency for all components of the ocean observing system

  • Shared use of scarce resources (e.g. ship time and personnel) for implementation and maintenance maximizes scientific return on investment.

  • Shared use of data collection platforms (e.g. moorings) for related or compatible measurements can lead to efficiencies in array design for different purposes (e.g. tsunami and climate).

  • Technical training and capacity building can be coordinated where similar technologies are used for multiple purposes.


Challenges funding
Challenges: Funding the mooring array include:

President Bush’s FY06 Budget for NOAAClimate Observations and Services

  • “$3.2 million to expand the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean array and the Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic into the Indian Ocean. This expansion will enhance NOAA's capability to accurately document the state of ocean climactic conditions and improve seasonal forecasting capability.”

  • (http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2386.htm)

  • Other activities covered by this funding:

  • Support the technological development of the next generation of moored buoys.

  • Add salinity sensors to the TAO array to improve seasonal-interannual forecasting.

  • Upgrades for 4 TAO and 3 PIRATA moorings to ocean reference station quality for satellite and model research

  • Providing 4 additional buoys for the PIRATA array in the hurricane-genesis region of the Atlantic Ocean for improved understanding of ocean-atmosphere interactions on hurricane development.


Challenges fishing vandalism
Challenges: Fishing Vandalism the mooring array include:

Tuna Catch 1989-1993

Yellowfin

Long Line

Purse Seine &Pole/Line

Skipjack

Bigeye

  • 1.5°N, 80.5°E ATLAS stopped transmitting on 23 Jan 05 after drifting 35 nm to SW.

  • 0°, 80.5°E lost winds and SW radiation on 21 Mar 05.


Challenges to Implementing and Sustaining a Moored Buoy Observing System for the Indian Ocean: Summary

  • Ship Time

  • Funding

  • International Coordination

  • Capacity Building

  • Data Management

  • Fishing Vandalism

  • Integratation into a Multi-Hazard Observing System


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