Nick miller and nitya anantharaman
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Nick Miller and Nitya Anantharaman. Methamphetamines and Amphetamines. What are Amphetamines? . There are illegal and legal types The legal types are prescribed for ADHD and narcolepsy It is illegal to posses amphetamines unless they are prescribed by a doctor

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Methamphetamines and Amphetamines

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Nick miller and nitya anantharaman

Nick Miller and Nitya Anantharaman

Methamphetamines and Amphetamines


What are amphetamines

What are Amphetamines?

  • There are illegal and legal types

  • The legal types are prescribed for ADHD and narcolepsy

  • It is illegal to posses amphetamines unless they are prescribed by a doctor

  • The illegal types are mostly meth:

    • Speed: powdered

    • Base: waxy paste

    • Ice: crystal or crystal powder (also known as crystal meth)


What is meth

What is Meth?

  • Methamphetamines are similar to amphetamines.

  • Meth is sometimes prescribed by doctors and the prescription cannot be refilled.

  • It can be taken orally, by snorting through the nose, by needle or by smoking

  • Meth is taken for its “rush” which is caused by high levels of dopamine sent to the brain.

  • Meth is addictive


Physical effects of amphetamines

Physical Effects of Amphetamines

  • Effect on heart rate:

    • After small dose (5-10 mg) blood pressure increases and causes heart to beat more slowly

    • After doses greater than 25 mg heart rate increases

    • After doses around 100mg heart beat becomes irregular

  • Pupils get bigger (dilate)

  • Dry mouth

  • Increased use of body’s energy which leads to weight loss

  • Damage to blood vessels (can lead to stroke)

  • Insomnia (lack of sleep)


Mental effects of amphetamines

Mental Effects of Amphetamines

  • Paranoia; some users thought they were being chased by people who wanted to kill them.

  • Depression

  • Risky behavioursand bad decisions

    • around 40% of people on amphetamines or meth have shown violence

  • Visual and auditory hallucinations and delusions

    • An example is thinking bugs are crawling all over their skin which causes the users to scratch and claw at themselves


Social effects of amphetamines

Social Effects of Amphetamines

  • People on amphetamines tend to speak a lot

    • One of the case studies reported that a man was blabbering about religion and thought another bearded patient was John the Baptist

  • Another man went showed reclusive behaviour and abstained from being social after chronic use (long-term use)

  • People abusing amphetamines may have problems with the following:

    • Relationships

    • Working or studying

    • Finances


Emotional effects of amphetamines

Emotional Effects of Amphetamines

  • Mood varies on whether the user is getting high or crashing

  • Euphoria, caused by the rush of dopamine, is experienced when getting high

  • When crashing, the user may be irritable and selfish

  • A common emotion is anger which often leads to violent behaviour

  • Someone on amphetamines could also experience anxiety and extreme fear

  • Depression comes after the crash if the user is going through withdrawal. (usually lasts about two weeks)


Percent of meth usage among teens in 2013

Percent of Meth usage among teens in 2013

The use of meth has decreased over time. In 1999, meth use was at 4.7% for high school students. In this study, only 1.2% use it.


Statistics by age group

Statistics by age group

From 2002 to 2008, past-month use of methamphetamine declined significantly among youths aged 12 to 17, from 0.3 percent to 0.1 percent, and young adults aged 18 to 25 also reported significant declines in past-month use, from 0.6 percent in 2002 to 0.2 percent in 2008.


Research

Research

  • In one experiment a monkey self-administered amphetamine directly into a vein by pressing a lever. The drug had a reinforcing effect and thus strengthened the lever-pushing behaviour. Studies such as these help us to understand amphetamine craving and addiction

  • In experiments, rats self-administering amphetamine often chew on their own bodies. Human abusers may develop dermatitis from unconsciously rubbing, picking and digging at their hands and faces.


Laws about amphetamines

Laws about Amphetamines

  • A person who possesses precursor substances with intention to make meth can be sentenced up to 20 years

  • Possessing meth can get you 10-42 months and over 50g can get you 10 or more years

  • If you maintain a place for making meth you can get 20+years

  • The minor offence of possession is 6 months, 1,000$ fine, or both


Meth amphetamine programs

Meth/Amphetamine Programs

  • Gateway

    • 1-412-963-7077

    • Specialises in day treatment and partial hospitalization

  • The Pittsburgh crystal meth addiction treatment program

    • 1-800-607-0730

    • Specialises in detox and rehab


Suggestions supportive actions

Suggestions/Supportive Actions

  • Limit each person purchases of precursor substances in pharmacies and grocery store to decrease production and use of meth

  • Keep track of the total mg of the substances sold when they checkout and stop them if they buy too much


Which effects did the people in these case studies demonstrate

Which effects did the people in these case studies demonstrate?

  • Effect on heart rate:

  • Pupils dilate

  • Dry mouth

  • Increased use of body’s energy which leads to weight loss

  • Damage to blood vessels (can lead to stroke)

  • Insomnia (lack of sleep)

  • Paranoia

  • Depression

  • Violence

  • Visual and auditory hallucinations and delusions

  • Excessive speech

  • Reclusive behaviour

  • Anger

  • Anxiety

  • Fear


Works cited

Works Cited

"Amphetamines." Better Health Channel. Australian Drug Foundation, 07 Nov. 2013. Web. 05 Jan. 2014. <http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Amphetamines>.

"Crystal Meth Possession: Penalties and Defense." CriminalDefenseLawyer.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. <http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/resources/criminal-defense/crystal-meth-possession.htm>.

"DrugFacts: Methamphetamine." National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). National Institute on Drug Abuse, Mar. 2010. Web. 05 Jan. 2014. <http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/methamphetamine>.

"Legal Status of Methamphetamine | Online References | Cyclopaedia.net." Legal Status of Methamphetamine. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. <http://en.cyclopaedia.net/wiki/Legal-status-of-methamphetamine>.

"Methamphetamine." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 01 July 2014. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methamphetamine>.

Snyder, Solomon H. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs. Danger in the Fast Lane: Amphetamines ed. New York: Chelsea House, 1992. Print. Ser. 1.


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