Backing (Clarification). Qualifier (Probability). Rebuttal (Reservation). Toulmin Model of Reasoning. Data (Evidence). Warrant (Reasoning). Claim (Conclusion). Backing : Immune systems protect from disease. Qualifier : Possibly.
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(Reservation)Toulmin Model of Reasoning
Backing: Immune systems protect from disease.
Data: Remo stayed at the vet’s with kidney failure & soon returned to die of FIP.
Warrant: A cat with a low immune system can contract FIP.
Rebuttal: Unless the virus was latent.FIP Argument
Claim: Remo contracted FIP at the vet’s.
Backing: Our experience with coffee is common.
Data: We see two cups on the table between the two people.
Warrant: We drink coffee out of cups in the U.S.
Rebuttal: Unless this is in England.Line Drawing Argument
Claim: The couple is drinking coffee.
Backing: The law specifically defines responsibility.
Qualifier: Beyond doubt.
Data: Police officers saw John leave a house carrying a VCR which was not his.
Warrant: Burglary means taking another’s property w/intent.
Rebuttal: Unless he can- not understand his actions.Burglary Argument
Claim: John is guilt of burglary.
Backing: We spend a lot on safety.
Data: A three-lane highway between Hemet and Temecula would be safer.
Warrant: We want to be safe.
Rebuttal: Unless we can achieve safety in other ways.Highway Argument
Claim: We should build such a 3-lane highway .
Data: Many Americans cannot afford adequate health care.
Warrant: When citizens cannot afford a vital service, the government must assist them.Exercise C1
Claim: A national health care plan is vital.
Data: More people would have access to [that canyon area].
Warrant: What benefits more people is what should be done [implied].Exercise C3
Claim: The canyon area ought to be developed.