Fatigue at sea from old to new horizons
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Fatigue at sea : from old to new Horizons. Wessel van Leeuwen , Stockholm University, Sweden Zhiwei Zhao, Dalian Maritime University , China Jørgen Riis Jepsen , University of Southern Denmark. 90 healthy experienced bridge and engineer watch keepers

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Fatigue at sea from old to new horizons

Fatigue at sea:from old to new Horizons

Wessel van Leeuwen, Stockholm University, Sweden

Zhiwei Zhao, Dalian Maritime University, China

Jørgen Riis Jepsen, University of Southern Denmark

[email protected], Stress Research Institute


The horizon project

  • 90 healthy experienced bridge and engineer watch keepers

  • Employed through a manning agency

  • 1 day of introduction and training

  • 1 week voyage (North Sea & English Channel)

  • Either 4/8 or 6/6

  • On site for full 7 days in accommodation

  • Caffeine is regulated and no alcohol

The HORIZON project


Measures included

Karolinska SleepinessScale

1extremely alert

2very alert3 alert

4rather alert

5neither alert nor sleepy

6somesigns of sleepiness7sleepy, no effort to stayawake8sleepysomeeffort to stayawake

9verysleepy, great effort to stayawake, fighting sleep

  • Sleepiness ratings

  • Stress ratings

  • Wake, work, sleep diaries

  • Electroencephalograpy

    • (EEG)

  • Reaction time (PVT task)

  • Navigational performance

  • Debriefing interviews

Measures included:


Key questions

Key questions

  • How sleepy were participants whilst on watch?

  • Did participants fall asleep on watch?

  • How much sleep did participants get off watch?

  • Was there performance affected?


Sleepiness higher in 6 6

Sleepiness higher in 6/6


Sleep on watch more frequent in 6 6

Sleep on watch more frequent in 6/6


Overtime work increases sleepiness

4/8 6/6

Overtime work increases sleepiness


Sleep off watch

Sleep off watch


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • More sleep on watch, less sleep off watch in 6/6 compared to 4/8

  • Most severe sleepiness reached at the end of night watches

  • Unexpectedly high amounts of participants falling asleep on watch

  • But no effects on navigational performance


Naturalistic performance unaffected but

Naturalistic performance unaffected, but….


An illustration of sleep on watch

An illustration of sleep on watch

Clocktime


Fatigue at sea from old to new horizons

An illustration of sleep on watch

20:29


Martha

Martha

fatiguepredictingtool – based on the results of projectHorizon

[email protected], Stress Research Institute


Fatigue at sea from old to new horizons

Regulation of alertness


Historical development

Regulation of alertness

Historicaldevelopment

  • 1995: three process model of alertnessregulation (TPMA) published in the literature

  • 2004: sleepwakepredictor (SWP): the first implementationpublicallyavailable

  • 2011: MARTHA: SWP adjusted for seafaringbased on HORIZON results


Martha the new horizon

MARTHA: The New Horizon

A Research Project sponsored by the TK Foundation

[email protected], Stress Research Institute


Fatigue at sea from old to new horizons

Project aims

  • Enhance FRM by investigatinglong term aspects of fatigue (websurveys, diaries, actiwatches)

  • Investigateculturaldifferencesin interpretation of regulatory frameworks on hours of work and rest (interviews with managers)

  • Evaluateeffectiveness of FRM in the context of shipping operations (experimental shipboard)


The main partners

The main partners


The main partners1

The main partners

The main partners

Kick offmeeting on 2nd July 2013


Time schedule martha

Time schedule MARTHA

  • Research design

    • Sep 2013 – Dec 2013

  • Interview and diary studies

    • Jan 2014 – Jun 2014

  • Analysesinterview and diary studies

    • Jul 2014 – Dec 2014

  • Shipboard studies

    • Jan 2015 – Dec 2015

  • Analysesshipboard studies

    • Apr 2015 – Dec 2015


Fatigue at sea from old to new horizons

Project aim 1: enhance FRM

  • Why?

    • Not muchknownaboutlong term fatigue, especially not in the context at sea

    • Optimize FRM for seafarer-context – to be used for aim 3

  • How?

    • websurveys

    • diaries

    • Actiwatches

  • When?

    • first half of 2014


Fatigue at sea from old to new horizons

  • Project aim 2: Investigateculturaldifferences

  • Why?

    • Howdoorganisationalpracticesaffectseafarerfatigue?

    • Differencesbetween Europe and China?

  • How?

    • Interview with managers and seafarers

    • Compare Europe with China  legislation interpreted differently?  different FRMS strategies might be needed

  • When?

    • first half of 2014


Fatigue at sea from old to new horizons

  • Culturaldifferencescan be disastrous

Obeying TCAS or ATC?


Fatigue at sea from old to new horizons

  • Project aim 3: Investigateeffectiveness of FRMS

  • Why?

    • Is it effective to trainseafarers on sleep and fatigue and the use of the MARTHA software?

  • How?

    • Compare a FRM group with a control group  is the FRM group indeed coping better with fatigue?

    • Again using Chinese and European groups

  • When?

    • Jan-Dec 2015


Fatigue at sea from old to new horizons

  • More information

[email protected]


Fatigue at sea from old to new horizons

Thankyou

foryourattention


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