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“Old” Learning Theories in the E-learn Environment. Mikhail Bouniaev Department of Mathematics, Southern Utah University, USA [email protected] Learning Is Effective When based on the general psychological principles of learning. Instructional Design is implementation and reflection of

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Old learning theories in the e learn environment
“Old” Learning Theories in the E-learn Environment

Mikhail Bouniaev

Department of Mathematics,

Southern Utah University, USA

[email protected]


How we learn and how we teach stories of two parties

LearningIs Effective When

based on the general psychological principles of learning.

Instructional Design is implementation and reflection of

Objective psychological laws

Pedagogical principles

Methods of teaching the subject

Instructional strategy

How we learn and how we teach - stories of two parties


Xvi xx centuries pedagogy
XVI-XX Centuries Pedagogy

  • Do we really based our teaching on general psychological principles, even we do not know what are they about?

  • How the pedagogy and methods of teaching have been shaped?

  • Can we apply the same teaching methods to the new delivery modes?



Shaping of e learn methods
Shaping of e-learn methods snake?

  • 400 years of “trial and error”?

  • Try to apply recommendations of the modern learning theories to the development of e-learn methods of teaching?


Modern leaning theories how our brains and minds learn
Modern Leaning Theories snake?How our brains and minds learn?

  • Galperin, P.; Leontiev A.N.; Papert, S; Piaget, J. Talyzina, T.; Scanner, B.; Vygotskiey J;

  • Constractivism and Satge by Stage Develoment of Mental Action Theory

  • Piaget: “reflective abstraction is a means by which students construct abstract structures as a result of a student reflecting on his/her own activities and the arguments used is social interaction


Stage by stage development of mental actions theory ssdma
Stage by Stage Development of Mental Actions Theory (SSDMA) snake?

  • The SSDMA theory reveals the general principles of learning in respect to methods of delivery.

  • It discusses what action is and what are independent characteristics of action.

  • It suggesting five stages of instruction that seem to follow immediately from these principles and are not closely connected with traditional methods of delivery


The foundations of the ssdma theory were developed in the fiftees sixtees by russian psychologists
The foundations of the SSDMA theory were developed in the fiftees-sixtees by Russian psychologists:

  • A.N. Leontiev

  • P. Galperin

  • T. Talizyna

  • We are working on further development of this theory in application to the computer based instruction including developing methods of e-learn instruction


SSDMA can be applied very efficiently for organizing CBI in well-structured domains such as mathematics. We also have some experimental data to believe that the same ideas that we incorporated to the CBI could be utilized for e-learn and blended teaching and not only to teaching mathematics


Basic notions of the stage by stage development of mental actions theory
Basic Notions of the Stage-by-Stage Development of Mental Actions Theory

  • Actions

  • Operations.

    According to the SSDMA theory, the major goal of instruction is developing mental actions with objects in the studied field. Instruction is viewed as controlling and organizing students' actions and activities.


All actions can be referred to two categories general logic actions and specific actions
All actions can be referred to two categories: Actions Theorygeneral logic actions and specific actions


Examples of general logic actions
Examples of general logic actions Actions Theory:

  • Attributing to a concept

    • Show that object X belongs to the class Y. Say show that a cow is the mammal

    • Show that Slovakia is the central europian country

    • Prove that 5 is a prime number


Examples of general logic actions1
Examples of general logic actions Actions Theory

  • Classification

    • Based on some reasons split the given set of numbers into different groups: 1,2,3,4,5

    • Classify the different periods in Europian civilization


Specific actions are basically inherent to a given subject field
Specific actions are basically inherent to a given subject field.

  • Multiplication in mathematics

  • Finding euphemism instead of clear and straightforward words in politics 

    Almost any general logic action has a specific component

  • Prove that 5 is a prime number


As a rule, the performed actions consist of other, more primitive actions, which in their turn can be part of other actions

  • Actions that are part of a given whole, are called operations.

  • That is, operations are also actions, hence the term "operation" implies only the hierarchical subordination among actions.


Different groups of operations perform different functions
Different groups of Operations perform different functions primitive actions, which in their turn can be part of other actions

  • Some part of performing an action is taken up by preliminary work, a preparation for an action in a certain sense.

  • This preparatory part is called orientation part of an action.


The SSDMA theory specifies four independent characteristics used to determine the level of development of an action.


Forms of action
FORMS OF ACTION used to determine the level of development of an action


The materialized form of action is connected with manual activities (manipulation, hand-on activities, etc.).


Objects of action are presented in the material form
OBJECTS OF ACTION activities (manipulation, hand-on activities, etc.).are presented in the material form



There is no doubt that actions in the given examples and pictures are actions in the material form. But there may be different examples.

  • The action of sketching pictures on a computer screen with the mouse

  • or moving some objects from one part of the screen to another


Probably, there is no need to discuss the next form of action – the speech form of action, but it should be noted that according to the SSDMA theory

Writing and typing belong to the speech form.


The mental form of action is the highest form of an action development
The mental form of action is the highest form of an action development.

  • An action in this form cannot be observed.

  • Only results of it can be recorded and observed.



Generalization of an action means
Generalization of an action means independent characteristics

  • the ability to determine and discriminate essential for performing an action properties

  • the ability to apply them to objects of different nature


The degree of completeness indicates whether all the operations that were to be performed in the process of performing an action have been actually completed.

  • If the action is already developed, then the student who performs it practically does not discriminate operations from each other, i.e. the action takes place in the compressed form.


The degree of assimilation as a rule is connected with such indicators as
The degree of assimilation, as a rule, is connected with such indicators as

  • the speed of performing an action,

  • technical errors and mistakes,

  • the level of automatism, etc.


As it follows from most modern psychological theories at the initial stage of instruction the object of an action should be presented in a material or materialized form

  • Moreover, the action in a materialized form should be developed at a high enough level of generalization, completeness and assimilation


The ssdma theory singles out five stages in the process of instruction
The SSDMA theory singles out five stages in the process of instruction.

  • Remainder: the major goal of instruction is developing mental actions with objects in the studied field. Instruction is viewed as controlling and organizing students' actions and activities.

  • Any action presupposes an object at which it is directed.


The first stage of instruction at the first stage the student gets
The First Stage of Instruction instruction. At the first stage the student gets

  • Information about the goals and objects of the action to be developed.

  • The structure of the action is defined, which includes orientation, executive and control parts

  • Links, connections and relationships with actions and studied previously objects are determined


At the first stage traditional instruction includes
At the first stage traditional instruction includes: instruction.

  • Class presentations

  • Visual aids

  • Laboratory experiments

  • Reading textbooks or manuals


The organization of instruction at the first stage in the e-learn environment should involve at least the following components:

  • Multimedia incorporated into on-line presentation of material.

  • Computer modeling of the action’s object

  • Internet search

  • Students' work with hypertext and active zones

  • More structure in the presented material


Multimedia
Multimedia e-learn environment should involve at least the following components:

  • It goes without saying that even a traditional form of presentation with multimedia is much more efficient than without it. It is especially true for the present generation of students that were brought up with hours of daily internet browsing and playing computer games.


Modeling
Modeling e-learn environment should involve at least the following components:

  • Model of a jet with changing wing angles in studying aerodynamics

  • Model of a grammar form in studying a foreign language

  • Group of commands of a programming language


Internet search makes it possible
Internet search makes it possible e-learn environment should involve at least the following components:

  • To solve motivation, attention, and concentration problems

  • To connect mental activities with the manual ones

  • To connect objects of action with visual images and its models

  • Allows students to move in their own speed


In designing an e-learn environment, we do not exclude traditional forms of presenting a new material.

  • Just reading the textbook is not a sufficient activity for students to master a subject.

  • Reading a textbook is made more effective with a available hypertext

  • Using the support of visual images

  • reducing the time for search of the already studied material


At the first stage of instruction technologies could be used
At the first stage of instruction technologies could be used traditional forms of presenting a new material.

  • As a tool to help students visualize dynamics of different phenomena and processes that cannot be observed in reality.

  • To provide a graphic interpretation of the studied process to model and imitate it


Three factors that determine the crucial role of technologies at the first stage of instruction in the e-learn environment.

  • The studied material should be visually interpreted.

  • Motivation problems should be resolved.

  • Students should get additional means (besides a traditional textbook) to reproduce the action, its components and objects on their own, without the instructor.


The second stage of instruction
The Second Stage of Instruction technologies at the first stage of instruction in the e-learn environment.

  • The second stage of developing an action focuses on students performing actions in the material or materialized form

  • Any action presupposes an object at which it is directed. If the action is manual, then the object should be material. If the action is mental, then the object of action should exist in the student’s mind


Modern technologies provide some means for creating models of materialized objects that the action under development is aimed at.

  • Graphics, drawings, tables, figures, diagrams, text blocks, group of commands of a programming language, etc.

  • Computer models of action to be developed may incorporate sound, dynamics and color.


Designing “objects to work with” probably is the most challenging task for both traditional and e-learn learning environments

  • Next challenge is to organize the learning activity aimed at the properties of the object that students are supposed to learn


Learning Management Systems (LMS) such as WebCT and Blackboard provide good tools to organize on line and blended courses

  • “Such systems provide a generic framework for web-based courses, and even some functionality aimed specifically at math and science, such as math-enabled message boards.”


The third stage of developing an action is that of the speech form
The third stage of developing an action is that of the speech form

  • At this stage all the elements of the action are presented in the speech form

  • The action is becoming more generalized but still remains non automatic and not compressed

  • The speech form of the action should be developed in the operation-by-operation mode


There are some features inherent in e-learn environments that make us believe that the e-learn environment could be competitive with traditional teaching

  • Asynchronous and synchronous chart boards

  • Shared documents and images

  • Chart boards archives


At the fourth stage the action should be developed in the inner speech form
At the fourth stage the action should be developed in the inner speech form.

  • The inner speech form is the first stage of the mental form of an action


Action are still performed in the operation by operation mode
Action are still performed in the operation-by-operation mode

  • Students should be provided with incentives and opportunity to describe in a compressed form the performed operations or to do them in a dialogue regime

  • The executive part of every operation could be performed by computer at student’s command


The students activities at his stage should be thoroughly planned and organized
The students’ activities at his stage should be thoroughly planned and organized.

  • These activities should be organized in synchronous as well as asynchronous modes

  • The exercises that require participation of all students in the group and operation-by- operation control should be developed


The fifth stage is development of an action in the mental form
The fifth stage is development of an action in the mental form

  • The action at this stage becomes an inner mental act with only the product of this action explicitly evident and observable.

  • Assimilation of the action at a given level of compression and generalization becomes a matter of top priority in developing an action at this stage.

  • The problems that have to be resolved at this stage are mostly related to motivation and control over the final result of students’ works.


Prompt control of action development in on line teaching
Prompt Control of Action Development in On Line Teaching form

  • One of the problems with traditional face-to-face teaching is prompt control and feedback at the first through fourth stages of instruction.

  • The SSDMA theory recommends that at the initial stages of action development, control is provided after every operation of the action.


Organizing work groups of students is one of the plausible solutions to the control and prompt feedback problem

  • The instructor should determine:

    • The measurable objectives of each session

    • What interactive exercises will be done online,

    • What the role of each participant is

    • How students will get feedback on the results of each session


The most efficient way to use the synchronized online discussions is
The most efficient way to use the synchronized online discussions is:

  • To develop the orientation part of action and to provide a step-by-step control of operations execution

    • disintegrated action into elementary operations

    • Develop each operation separately a the high lelel of generalization and assimilation

    • To shift control for the action performance to the entire group


Final comments
Final Comments discussions is:

  • The following elements are are essential for effective e-learn teaching

  • Sound learning theory as the starting point and foundation for developing instructional strategy

  • Extensive use of technology

  • Well organized structure of the course and well organized structure of every course unit and element


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