Personality theories
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PERSONALITY THEORIES. Personality Theories. BEHAVIORISTS (Skinner) PSYCHOANALYTIC (Freud, Neo-Freudians, Psychodynamic) SOCIAL COGNITIVE (Bandura, Mischel, Seligman) HUMANISTIC (Rogers, Maslow) BIOLOGICAL (Eysenck) TRIAT (Allport, Catrell, Sheldon). Skinner.

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PERSONALITY THEORIES

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PERSONALITY THEORIES


Personality Theories

  • BEHAVIORISTS (Skinner)

  • PSYCHOANALYTIC (Freud, Neo-Freudians, Psychodynamic)

  • SOCIAL COGNITIVE (Bandura, Mischel, Seligman)

  • HUMANISTIC (Rogers, Maslow)

  • BIOLOGICAL (Eysenck)

  • TRIAT (Allport, Catrell, Sheldon)


Skinner

  • Argued for determinism--behavior is fully determined by environmental stimuli.

  • Free will is but an illusion…”There is no place in the scientific position for a self as a true originator or initiator of action.”

  • Collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations.


Social Cognitive Theories

  • Applies principles of learning, thinking and social influences

  • Reciprocal Determinism (Bandura)…idea that internal mental events, external environmental events and overt behavior all influence one another. Your environment determines your behavior & your behavior can change your environment.


Behavior

Environment

Beliefs


Bandura continued…

*Observational Learning…

Bobo doll experiment

*Often considered the father of the cognitive movement


Walter Mischel

  • Colleague of Bandura at Stanford (now at Columbia)

  • Extent to which situational factors govern behavior…controversy over the consistency of human behavior

  • Emphasizes and highlights situational determinants of behavior


Martin Seligman Julian Rotter

  • Learned Helplessness

  • Optimism

  • Julian Rotter--Locus of control (internal and external)


Humanists (Phenomenological)

  • Humans are essentially good

  • Motivated toward self-actualization

  • Maslow--Hierarchy of Needs

  • Carl Rogers…Unconditional Positive Regard…Self

  • Holism (considers whole person like Gestalt

  • Phenomenological--everyone’s individual frame of reference/point of view


Biological

  • Hans Eysenck--personality structure as a hierachy of traits

  • Three high order traits (Extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism)


Trait Theorists

  • Gordon Allport--

  • Personal traits (dispositions)--concrete, easily recognized,consistencies in our behavior

  • Common traits (culturally)--liberal/conservative

  • Central traits (building blocks)--5 to 10


Allport (continued)

  • Secondary traits(preferences, attitudes)

  • Cardinal traits (define life)…Mother Theresa--religious service

  • Allport was so right about so many things that his ideas have simply passed on into the spirit of the times. Influenced many others.

  • Humanist????


Other Trait Theorists...

  • Sheldon--Body types (endomorph, ectomorph and mesomorph)

  • Big Five Personality Factors (Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness)

  • Cattell--16 traits


Sheldon

  • Ectomorph - EndodermThis is known to develop into the digestive tact which consists of the intestine, stomach. Heart lungs etc. this somatotype is also the innermost layer of the embryo. The personality traits associated with the endoderm body type is tolerance, love, comfort. In a word all the emotions that have to deal with a great deal of affection. The body type is considered to be fat and can easily be overweight. The love for people and the intimate relationship with food is also another trait of this personality.

  • Mesomorph - MesodermThis is the middle layer which in turn develops into the muscle, blood vessels, bone etc. In terms of body shape with this type of somatotype, Sheldon concluded that the physic of this body is all about muscle. These are well defined muscle tones. In terms of personality this relates to very energetic, courageous, active, aggressive, etc. all this can be seen as the personality of the Alpha male.

  • Endomorph - EctodermThis is naturally the last layer. It has its association or develops are that it forms the nervous system, skin and hair. These are people that are considered to be underweight because they are so slim. They are often the intelligent nerds and their personality traits are that highly self-aware therefore they are also very sensitive with an air of an artistic nature to them. In a way they are society’s introverts because of their shy and timid nature.


Objective Tests

MMPI

Myers-Briggs

Keirsey-Bates

www.allhealth.com

Http://keirsey.com

Projective tests

Rorschach

TAT (Murray)

Personality tests


General Personality Information


Issues in Personality Theories


Issues in Personality Theories


Psychosexual

Stages of

Development


Stages of Development

  • Freud believed that personality is formed during childhood.

  • Our past childhood experiences are powerful influences on our present personalities


  • The stages (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital) represent patterns of gratifying our basic needs and satisfying our drive for physical pleasure

  • Insufficient or excess gratification during any stage could cause a person to reflect the stage throughout life.


Stages


Stage Issues

  • During the Phallic Stage, The Oedipus complex occurs due to boys feelings of guilt for love of mother and fear of castration.

  • During Oral Stage, deprivation or overindulgence may result in adult oral fixations or have dependence issues


  • If Anal Stage is not resolved, may result in an anal expulsive (messy, unorganized) or anal retentive (controlled compulsively neat) personality


Elements

of

Personality


Super

Ego

Ego

Id

THE ICEBERG CORRELATION

Id -

Pleasure Principle

Ego -

Reality Principle

Super Ego

- Moral Principle


Elements of the Personality

ID

  • Unconcious energy

  • Basic drives

  • Immediate gratification

  • Pleasure Principle

  • Instinctual/biological

  • Libidinal Energy


Elements of the Personality

EGO

  • Partially conscious

  • Cope with real world

  • Gratifies ID in realistic ways

  • Reality Principle

  • Logical/Rational

  • Struggles to reconcile ID & Superego


Elements of the Personality

SUPEREGO

  • Partially conscious

  • Ideal behavior

  • Moral Principle

  • Conscience


Unconscious

below the surface

(thoughts, feelings,

wishes, memories)

THE ICEBERG CORRELATION

“the mind is like an iceburg - mostly hidden”

Conscious Awareness

small part above surface

(Preconscious)

Repression

banishing unacceptable

thoughts & passions to

unconscious

Dreams & Slips


The work we choose

The beliefs we hold

Daily habits

Troubling symptoms

Jokes

Dreams

Slips of the tongue

Accidents

Expressions of the Unconscious


Psychoanalysis and

Freud


Freud’s Psychoanalytical

  • Discovered the unconscious

  • Used hypnosis and then free association to unlock the unconscious

  • Three levels of the mind: unconscious, preconscious, and conscious.

  • Freud believed we are most influenced by our unconscious.

  • Personality results from our efforts to resolve conflict between pleasure seeking impulses and internalized social restraints.


Psychoanalytic Personality Tests

Goal – to tap into the unconscious.

Projective Tests – user tells a story or gives a description based on an ambiguous stimulus.

Examples:

  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – share inner feelings through stories made up about ambiguous scenes.

  • Rorschach inkblot – descriptions of inkblots reflect inner feelings and conflicts.

    Criticisms:

  • Reliability? – NO• Validity? – NO

  • No universal scoring system or training system


Neo - Freudians


Neo - Freudians

Accepted Freud’s basic ideas:

  • Id, ego, superego.

  • Importance of conscious.

  • Shaping of personality during childhood.

  • Dynamics of anxiety & defense mechanisms.

    Differences:

  • More emphasis on conscious.

  • Less emphasis on sexual motivations.

  • More emphasis on noble motives & social interactions.


Neo - Freudians

Horney:

  • Dependent child’s sense of helplessness creates anxiety

  • Triggers desire for love & security

  • Criticized Freud’s gender bias


Neo - Freudians

Alder:

  • Childhood social conflicts influence personality development

  • Inferiority complex


Neo - Freudians

Jung:

  • More emphasis on unconscious than other neo Freudians

  • Unconscious contains more than just negative, but unrealized talents, gifts, creativities & passions.

  • Believed in a Collective Unconscious – Part of unconscious shared by all. Archetypes, the building blocks of the soul which are inherited and shared by all, live here.


Humanistic Perspective

  • Positive Approach

  • Sense of Self = center of personality

  • Goal = foster personal growth

  • Emphasis = human potential

  • Self concept shapes personality


Maslow

The self actualized person

  • Self aware & self accepting

  • Open & spontaneous

  • Loving & caring

  • Secure

  • Creates deep relationships

  • Is moved by personal peak experiences

  • Has the courage to be unpopular


Carl Rogers

A growth promoting climate:

  • Genuineness – openness

  • Acceptance – unconditional positive regard

  • Empathy – sharing our feelings and reflecting our meanings

    Positive self concept occurs when

    IDEAL self = ACTUAL self


Self-Esteem

People with higher

self-esteem typically:

  • have < sleepless nights

  • < likely to conform under pressure or use drugs

  • more persistent at difficult tasks

  • <shy & lonely


Criticisms of Humanistic Approach

  • Concepts vague and subjective

  • Individualism can lead to self indulgence, selfishness, arrogance & pride.

  • Ignores our human capacity for evil.


Social Cognitive Perspective

  • Applies principles of learning, thinking & social influence

  • Emphasizes importance of external events and how we interpret them.

  • Emphasizes our sense of personal control


Reciprocal Determinism

Bandura = process of interacting with our environment

1. Different people choose different environments

2. Different people interpret & react differently to situations & events.

3. Our personalities create situations to which we react. Ex – self fulfilling prophesy, expectations.


Who controls your world?

  • Do you see yourself as controlling of, or controlled by your environment?

  • External locus of control – perception that outside factors determine one’s fate.

  • Internal locus of control – perception that one has more control over own fate. Typically these people achieve more in schools, act more independently, are less depressed, in better health and cope with stress better.


Learned Helplessness

  • Those who feel helpless & oppressed often view control as external.

  • When traumatic events occur and people feel as if they have no control, they often learn helplessness, which can generalize to other situations.


Criticism

  • Too much focus on situations, not enough focus on person’s inner traits

  • SCs argue that our traits & emotions shine through in our reactions & responses.


Trait Perspective

Describes Personality based on:

  • Characteristic Behaviors

  • Conscious Motives

  • Describes, doesn’t explain

  • Basically a classification system


Trait Tests

Myers – Briggs Test - Based on Jung’s personality types:

  • Extravert vs. Intravert

  • Thinking vs. Feeling

  • Judging vs. Perceiving

  • Sensing vs. Intuitive


Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

  • Objective, normed personality inventory with validity scales for faking & lying.

    10 scales:

    1. Hypochondriasis6. Schizophrenia

    2. Depression7. Hypomania

    3. Social Introversion8. Hysteria

    4. Psychopathic Deviancy9. Paranoia

    4. Masculinity/Femininity10. Psychasthenia


Biology & Personality

  • Low brain arousal results in more extraversion

  • Overactive Autonomic Nervous System results in a more emotionally unstable personality

  • Inactive frontal lobe area results in a more extraverted personality

  • Genetics influence personality


Trait Perspective Criticism

  • Person-situation controversy – Do traits persist over time and across situations?

  • Are behaviors consistent from one situation to the next?

  • Does trait perspective result in labeling & pigeonholing?

    Trait Perspective actually attempts to predict AVERAGE behavior over many situations to determine personality.


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