Chapter 3 the process of science studying animal behavior
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Chapter 3 The Process of Science: Studying Animal Behavior. 3.1 Biologists study behavior through observation and experiments 3.2 Experiments show that both genes and environment affect behavior 3.3 Learning is behavior based on experience

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Chapter 3 The Process of Science: Studying Animal Behavior

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Chapter 3 the process of science studying animal behavior

Chapter 3 The Process of Science:Studying Animal Behavior

  • 3.1 Biologists study behavior through observation and experiments

  • 3.2 Experiments show that both genes and environment affect behavior

  • 3.3 Learning is behavior based on experience

  • 3.4 Social behaviors are important adaptations in many species


3 1 biologists study behavior through observation and experiments

3.1 Biologists study behavior through observation and experiments

Objectives

Define animal behavior.

Describe examples of studying behavior through observations and experiments.

Distinguish between immediate and ultimate causes of behavior.

Key Terms

animal behavior

immediate cause

ultimate cause


3 1define animal behavior

3.1Define animal behavior

  • Animal behavior—what an animal does as it interacts with its environment.

  • Scientists rely on two approaches to explore life: discovery science (observation and careful description) and hypothesis-based science (testing explanations, usually with experiments)


3 1define animal behavior1

3.1Define animal behavior

  • Observation-

    Jane Goodall

    chimps

  • Experimentation-

    Tinbergen

    Digger Wasps

  • Tinbergen used simple materials

    —pine cones and stones—

    and a simple procedure.

    The results led him to conclude that

    digger wasps use a pattern of

    landmarks to find their nests.


3 1 define animal behavior

3.1 Define animal behavior

  • Tinbergen's studies looked for the immediate cause of the wasp's behavior— an explanation of the organism's immediate interactions with the environment

  • But behavioral biologists also ask "why" questions—why do organisms behave as they do? Answering "why" questions involves finding the ultimate cause of a behavior—an explanation based on the organism's evolutionary adaptations


Chapter 3 the process of science studying animal behavior

3.2

  • Objectives

  • Explain the term innate behavior.

  • Describe the influence of environmental cues on rhythmic behaviors.

  • Describe how both genes and experience can influence behavior.

  • Key Terms

    • innate behavior

    • fixed action pattern

    • circadian rhythm


3 2 explain the term innate behavior

3.2 Explain the term innate behavior.

  • Researchers have observed that digger wasps raised in isolation build nests in the same way as wasps raised among other wasps A behavior that is performed correctly by all individuals of a species, even if they have no previous experience with the behavior, is called an innate behavior.


3 2 explain the term innate behavior1

3.2 Explain the term innate behavior

  • fixed action pattern

    (abbreviated FAP)—

    an innate behavior

    that occurs as an

    Unchangeable

    sequence of actions


3 2 explain the term innate behavior2

3.2 Explain the term innate behavior

  • This type of innate

    rhythm with a cycle

    of about 24 hours is

    called a circadian

    rhythm

  • Circadian rhythms

    are controlled by

    an organism's

    internal "biological

    clock”


3 2 investigating the interaction of genes and experience a case study

3.2 Investigating the Interaction of Genes and Experience: A Case Study

An experiment

with lovebirds

demonstrated

  • that hybrid offspring

    could alter inherited

    behavior based

    on experience


Chapter 3 the process of science studying animal behavior

3.3

  • Objectives

  • Distinguish habituation, imprinting, and conditioning as forms of learning.

  • Explain the term insight.

  • Summarize two hypotheses about the purpose of play behavior.

  • Key Terms

    • learning

    • habituation

    • imprinting

    • conditioning

    • insight


3 3 distinguish habituation imprinting and conditioning as forms of learning

3.3 Distinguish habituation, imprinting, and conditioning as forms of learning

  • A change in an animal's behavior resulting from experience is called learning. A simple form of learning is habituation, in which an animal learns not to respond to a repeated stimulus that conveys little or no important information


3 3 distinguish habituation imprinting and conditioning as forms of learning1

3.3 Distinguish habituation, imprinting, and conditioning as forms of learning

Some of the most interesting cases involve imprinting. Imprinting

  • is learning that is limited to a

  • specific time period in an

  • animal's life and that is usually irreversible

  • imprinting takes place during a particular time period in an animal's development called a critical learning period


3 3 distinguish habituation imprinting and conditioning as forms of learning2

3.3 Distinguish habituation, imprinting, and conditioning as forms of learning

  • Learning that a particular

  • stimulus or a particular

  • response is linked to

  • a reward or punishment

  • is called conditioning

  • Ivan Pavlov

  • classical conditioning


3 3explain the term insight

3.3Explain the term insight.

  • At a level above operant conditioning is the ability to respond appropriately to a new situation without previous experience, called insight or innovation. For example, an octopus can figure out how to unscrew the lid of a jar and obtain the food inside


3 4 explain the significance of courtship rituals

3.4 Explain the significance of courtship rituals

  • Objectives

  • Identify examples of competitive behaviors.

  • Explain the significance of courtship rituals.

  • Relate communication to other social behaviors.

  • Give an example of cooperation in an animal species.

  • Key Terms

    • aggressive behavior

    • dominance hierarchy

    • territory

    • courtship ritual

    • communication

    • cooperation


3 4 identify examples of competitive behaviors

3.4 Identify examples of competitive behaviors

  • Actual physical struggles or threatening behaviors between animals are classified as aggressive behaviors

  • Aggressive behaviors

  • within a group of animals

  • often result in a ranking of

  • individuals, called a dominance hierarchy

  • Many animals exhibit territorial behavior. A territory is an area that individuals defend and from which other members of the same species are usually excluded


3 4 explain the significance of courtship rituals1

3.4 Explain the significance of courtship rituals

  • In some species, animals perform elaborate behaviors before mating, called a courtship ritual


3 4 relate communication to other social behaviors

3.4 Relate communication to other social behaviors

.

One of the most complex

social systems

is found in honeybees.

In the 1940s, biologist

Karl von Frisch

carried out several

experiments to study

bee communication


3 4 give an example of cooperation in an animal species

3.4 Give an example of cooperation in an animal species

  • The social system of the honeybees is one example of a group of behaviors described as cooperation,

  • in which individuals

  • work together in a way

  • that is beneficial to the group.


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