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Noun. Pronoun. Parts of Speech. Interjections. Verb. Conjunction. Adjective. Preposition. Adverb. 1. Nouns. A noun is a name; nouns name persons, animals, places, things, collections or groups of persons or things, qualities, conditions, actions, processes, and ideas. Examples:

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Noun

Pronoun

Parts of Speech

Interjections

Verb

Conjunction

Adjective

Preposition

Adverb


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1. Nouns

  • A noun is a name; nouns name persons, animals, places, things, collections or groups of persons or things, qualities, conditions, actions, processes, and ideas.

  • Examples:

    • Persons- cousins, boy, teacher, Joan, neighbor, Coach Wooden

    • Animal- Lion, monkey, crocodile

    • Places- village, Canada, drug store, Broadway

    • Things- camera, pen, window, crown

    • Collections or groups- chorus, legislature, family, team, class

    • Qualities, conditions, actions, processes, and ideas- courage, happiness, study, lightning, morality, honesty.


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Nouns cont’d.

  • A noun, like Winter Park High School or Maitland Middle School, is considered one noun.

  • This applies also to Aunt Helen, George Washington, and Grandma Jones.


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Nouns cont’d

CLUES FOR NOUNS:

  • Most nouns have a plural form, usually ending in s or es. Friend-friends, apples-apples, eagle-eagles, glass-glasses.

  • Most nouns make a sensible pattern with is, are or some other verb. For example: friend is, apples are, faith is, windows are, glasses break

  • Remember the signal words: a, an, and the. Although some books call them articles or determiners, nouns also have adjectives, and adjectives modify or describe nouns or pronouns. When you spot a,an, or the in a sentence, there will be a noun (sometimes a pronoun) somewhere after it.


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Exercise: Identify the nouns

  • Mr. Boardman and his daughter love to play games on the porch.


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2. Pronouns

  • A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.

  • EX.: “Mother, will Mother take Linda, Robert, and Kay for a ride in Mother’s car?”

    Youusyour

  • Linda, Robert, and Kay saw mother drive mother’s car by Linda, Robert, and Kay’s school.

    Weyouyour our


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Personal Pronouns

  • First person pronouns refer to the speaker(s): I, me my, mine, we us our, ours

  • Second person pronouns refer to the person spoken to: you, your, yours

  • Third person pronouns refer to the person or thing spoken about: he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs.


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Reflexive/Intensive Pronouns

  • Reflexive (compound personal pronouns)or Intensive pronouns: myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves.

  • Please note: Never say hisself, or themself or theirselves.

  • Second note: Do not use a reflexive pronoun as a subject: Himself go to the store.


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Relative or Interrogative Pronouns

  • Interrogative or relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that, what.

  • Sometimes these ask questions (Interrogative) – who, whom, which, what, etc.

  • Sometimes they introduce adjective clauses (Relative) – that, which, who, whom, whose, etc.


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Indefinite Pronouns

  • Examples of Indefinite Pronouns:

    • anyone, anybody, anything, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody, etc.

    • Few, all, each some, etc. (When used alone, these words function as pronouns/nouns. When used with a noun, they function as adjectives.)


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Reciprocal Pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns

  • Demonstrative pronouns include: this, that, these, those, etc.

  • One another, each other, etc.


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Exercise: Identify the pronouns

  • My girls, who love to dance with their Nani, are at their uncle’s wedding. Nani is teaching them to dance by themselves.


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3. Adjectives

  • A word that modifies (changes or describes) a noun or a pronoun. An adjective usually answers one of these questions: What kind of? Which one? How many? How much?

  • Examples:

    • What kind of? The bionic woman has super ears.

    • Which one? This girl does not have normal strength.

    • How Many? Three policemen are needed to restrain him.

    • How much? She acquired more strength from a special operation.


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Adjectives cont’d.

  • Most adjectives fit into one of three sentence patterns:

    • Normal position (before the noun) Three tiny kittens followed us home.

    • Predicate position (after a linking verb) the clerk was Friendly.

    • Appositive position (after the noun) Elton John, flashy and smiling, sang.


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Adjectives cont’d.

  • A, An, and The are classified as adjectives (they are known as Articles).

    • “The” is a definite article.

    • “A” and “an” are indefinite articles.


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Exercise: Identify the Adjectives

The little girl, happy and excited, is learning to ride on the brown horse. The horse’s name happens to be Hannah. The horse is pretty.


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4. Adverbs

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, and adjective, or another adverb.

  • Examples:

    • Modifying a verb: The coyote howled mournfully.

    • Modifying an adjective: The coyote is Unusually clever.

    • Modifying an adverb: The stars glittered very icily. (icily is an adverb telling how the stars glittered; very is an adverb telling how icily.)


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Adverbs cont’d.

  • Adverbs often answer the questions “When?” “Where?” “Why?” “How?” “How much?” and “How often?” They also help ask questions.

  • When? Where? How?Again the chipmunk looked out cautiously.

  • How much? That record played too loud.

  • How often? People seldom realize the part television plays in their lives.

  • Asking questions: Why was the tide higher today? Where are you going? When will he arrive? How did he get there?


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Adverbs cont’d.

An adverb tends to tell where, when, or how.

  • There is the ball. [Where is the ball? There]

  • This is most pleasant. [How unpleasant? Most]

  • She is never happy. [When is she happy? Never]

  • Shelley carefully read the book. [How did she read? Carefully]

  • Briana will eat soon. [When will she eat? Soon]

  • Kyle slept there. [Where did Kyle sleep? There]


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Adverbs cont’d.

  • Note: at least 90% of the time, an adverb modifies the verb of the sentence.


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Adverbs cont’d.

Clues for adverbs:

  • Many adverbs end in –ly. He moved carefully. Quickly she changed seats. (be careful; every word ending in –ly is not an adverb: A deadly silence; a likely story.)

  • Adverbs can often be moved around in a sentence, without changing the meaning of the sentence. Clumsily he moved around the dance floor. He moved clumsily around the dance floor. He moved around the dance floor clumsily.

  • The adverbs- very, rather, somewhat, and usually- usually modify an adjective or another adverb, and do not move about in the sentence. They are sometimes called “intensifiers” E.G. The very rainy weather was somewhat unusual for March. The rather tall young man is not usually late


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Exercise: Identify the adverbs

  • Isabella has a very intense smile. She always smiles when daddy suddenly enters the rather small room.


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5. Verbs

  • Verbs make statements, ask questions, or give commands.

  • They may express action or state of being.

  • Some action examples are: run, hit, hunt, take.

  • Some state of being verbs are: am, is, was, are.



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Verbs cont’d.

Linking verbs:

  • A linking verb connects the subject to its description. Lisa is a teacher.

  • Commonly used linking verbs: is, was, look, taste, feel, appear, seem.


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Verbs cont’d.

  • Auxiliary verbs (a.k.a. auxiliaries or helping verbs) - a verb which helps another verb.

  • The be verbs, the have verbs, and the do verbs can be main verbs or helpers. A main verb may have one, two, or three helping verbs (this is called a verb phrase).


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Verbs cont’d.

  • Here is a list of helping verbs. KNOW THEM!!!!!

  • BE verbsHAVE verbsDO verbsOTHERHELPERS

    be has do should

    being have does could

    been had did would

    am may

    is might

    are can

    was shall

    were will

    must



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Verbs cont’d.

CLUES FOR VERBS:

1. Verbs often end ining, ed, d, and t.

Call, called, calling; sleep, slept, sleeping; walk, walked, walking

2. Add -ing to a word to see if it can be a verb:

Kick, kicking go, going

BUT NOT: about, abouting; her, hering


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Verbs cont’d.

3. Try placing He or They in front of the word:

VerbsNever a Verb

He dashes / they dash he honests / they honest

He flies / they fly he ons / they on

He sings / they sing he quicklies / they quickly


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Verbs cont’d.

  • FIND THE VERB IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. WHAT CLUES APPLY?

  • The girls laughed together.

  • The dogs were vaccinated for rabies.

  • The team is practicing today.

  • The pictures turned out well.

  • He has been reading this summer?

  • That teacher was sad.

  • We ran for three miles.

  • Did she call the library?

  • That clerk was nice.

  • Were you going to the game?


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Exercise: Identify the verbs.

Hannah and Bella are riding in the train. They often wonder how a train moves, but they are more concerned with riding on the train. Aren’t they having a great time?


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6. Prepositions

  • A PREPOSITION SHOWS THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE NOUN OR PRONOUNFOLLOWING IT TO SOME OTHER WORD IN THE SENTENCE.

  • IN ORDER FOR A WORD TO BE A PREPOSITION, IT MUST HAVE A NOUN OR PRONOUN AFTER IT AS ITS OBJECT.

  • Examples: The book is on the desk, and the computer is under the desk.


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Prepositions cont’d.

  • A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE IS A PREPOSITION AND ITS OBJECT, WITH OR WITHOUT MODIFIERS.

  • EXAMPLES:

    • She drove into the water.

    • He sat in his seat.

    • Over the house flew a flock of birds.

    • We sailed through the cloudless, blue sky

    • Inside the warm house was a big fireplace.


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Prepositions cont’d.

  • REMEMBER!!! A PREPOSITION MUST HAVE AN OBJECT; OTHERWISE THE WORD IS A DIFFERENT PART OF THE SPEECH, USUALLY AN ADVERB.

  • He sat in the chair. We jumped in.

  • A dog was inside the house. Jake hurried inside.

  • Sue walked by the door. The time just flew by.


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Prepositions cont’d.

  • A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE STARTS WITH THE PREPOSITION AND ENDS WITH THE OBJECT. NO PART OF A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE CAN HAVE ANY OTHER JOB IN THE SENTENCE.

  • On page 225 in your Hacker Manual is a list of common prepositions. Learn them.


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Prepositions cont’d.

  • One way to determine if a word is a preposition is to place it before the words “the table.” (on the table, near the table, for the table)


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Exercise: Identify the prepositions

As the fish swam through the water, it held a smaller fish in its mouth. Then a shark approached, and not seeing the fish, it swam by.



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Conjunctions cont’d.

1. Coordinating conjunctions: These words join words or groups of words of equal value.

  • This means that a coordinating conjunction can join …

    • A noun with a noun

    • A verb with a verb

    • An adjective with an adjective

    • An adverb with an adverb

    • A prepositional phrase with a prepositional phrase.

    • A clause with a clause


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Conjunctions cont’d.

  • 7 coordinating conjunctions:

    For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So

    [The four main coordinating conjunctions are AND, BUT, OR, NOR.]

  • Exs.:

    • apples and pears, John and Susan, Bill and I, Big and tall

    • slender or plump, smoothly but carefully, quickly but quietly, over the river or through the woods,

    • after the game but before the party, salt nor pepper


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Conjunctions cont’d.

  • Darius and Darrel went to the party. (noun to noun)

  • Mike spends the day writing or the night eating. (phrase to phrase)

  • Renee was tired, but she could not sleep. (clause to clause)


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Conjunctions cont’d.

2. Subordinating conjunctions connect dependent clauses with independent clauses of a sentence.

  • Commonly used subordinating conjunctions: after, as, as if, as long as, because, before, that, even if, except that, ever, if, if only, in case, since, until, then, whenever, where, wherever, whether, which, while, who, whom, whose.


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Conjunctions cont’d.

  • Examples of subordinating conjunctions:

  • Chris Clark wrote a book before the trial ended.

  • If Kevin grows the tomato plants, he can make salsa.

  • After Ryan and Angie arrived, Darrel and I went to play basketball.


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Conjunctions cont’d.

  • A special form of coordinate conjunction is the CORRELATIVE

  • These always come in pairs and join sentence elements of equal value. They are used mainly for emphasis.

  • Both. . .and not only . . . but also either. . .or neither. . .nor


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Conjunctions cont’d.

  • EXAMPLES of correlative conjunctions in action:

  • Both Steve and his brother were late.

  • I lost not only my pencil but also my new book.

  • The cookies are either in the cupboard or on the table.

  • Neither the teacher nor the students had been told about it.


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8. Interjections

  • AN INTERJECTION IS AN EXCALMATORY WORD THAT EXPRESSES EMOTION.

  • IT HAS NO GRAMMATICAL RELATION TO THE REST OF THE SENTENCE.

  • EXAMPLES:

    • Ugh! The milk tastes sour.

    • Yippee! We won!

    • Wow! It worked.

    • Well, forget it.

    • Oh, all right.



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The Sentence thoughts and ideas.

+


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Clauses thoughts and ideas.

  • Independent clause (a.k.a. a complete thought; a simple sentence)

    • Has a subject and a verb, and it is a complete thought.

  • Dependent clause

    • Has a subject and a verb but lacks a complete thought; the dependent clause requires an independent clause to lean on.


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Clause vs. Phrase thoughts and ideas.

  • What’s the difference between a clause and a phrase?

  • A clause has a subject and a verb.

  • A phrase is a group of words (with no subject and verb).


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7 Basic Sentence Patterns: thoughts and ideas.

  • Subject + Verb

  • Subject + Verb + Direct Object (D.O.)

  • Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + D.O.

  • S + V + D.O. + Objective Complement

  • Subject + Linking Verb + Predicate Nominative

  • Subject + Linking Verb + Predicate Adjective

  • Subject + Linking Verb + Adverb


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Expanding Sentences: thoughts and ideas.

  • The subject can be lengthened by simple adjectives, other nouns, prepositional phrases, verbal phrases, appositives, and relative clauses.

  • Verbs can be lengthened by adding adverbs, prepositional phrases, or adverb clauses.


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Sentence Forms thoughts and ideas.

  • Simple Sentence (a.k.a. Independent Clause) = Subject + Verb

  • Compound Sentence = two or more Independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction.

  • Complex Sentence = Independent Clause + Dependent Clause (joined by a subordinating conjunction)

  • Compound-Complex sentence = two independent clauses + dependent clause


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