Parts of speech
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Parts of Speech. Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, Conjunctions, Prepositions, Interjections. Nouns. Person, place, thing, idea Concrete nouns – can be perceived with at least one of the five senses (rock, salt, scream)

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Parts of Speech

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Parts of speech

Parts of Speech

Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, Conjunctions, Prepositions, Interjections


Nouns

Nouns

  • Person, place, thing, idea

  • Concrete nouns – can be perceived with at least one of the five senses (rock, salt, scream)

  • Abstract nouns – cannot be perceived with the senses (humor, anger, fear)

  • Common nouns – non-specific, just any old person, place, thing or idea (boy, house, shoe)

  • Proper nouns – names a specific person, place, thing or idea (Jeff, White House, Nike)


Parts of speech

There are 20 nouns in the following paragraph. Then label each noun as common or proper, concrete or abstract.

This summer we went on vacation to the beach. Usually we go to Orange Beach, but this time we went to Destin. We had so much fun playing in the sand and waves. We spent a lot of time lying in the sun, too. We met some new friends from Georgia. We all rode jet skis and kayaks together. The condo had a huge pool with a waterfall. The entire week was pure joy.


Nouns in paragraph

Nouns in paragraph…

This summer we went on vacation to the beach. Usually we go to Orange Beach, but this time we went to Destin. We had so much fun playing in the sand and waves. We spent a lot of time lying in the sun, too. We met some new friends from Georgia. We all rode jetskis and kayaks together. The condo had a huge pool with a waterfall. The entire week was pure joy.


Types of nouns

Types of nouns…

1. summer – common, concrete11. sun – common, concrete

2. vacation – common, concrete12. friends – common, concrete

3. beach – common, concrete13. Georgia – proper, concrete

4. Orange Beach – proper, concrete14. jet skis – common, concrete

5. time – common, concrete15. kayaks – common, concrete

6. Destin – proper, concrete16. condo – common, concrete

7. fun – common, abstract17. pool – common, concrete

8. sand – common, concrete18. waterfall – common, concrete

9. waves – common, concrete19. week - common, concrete

10. time – common, concrete20. joy – common, abstract


Pronouns

Pronouns

  • Replaces nouns

  • Instead of using the word boy or Jim, you can use he, him, his…

  • Instead of cat, you can use it

    Imagine having to write or speak with no pronouns…..


A language with no pronouns

A language with no pronouns…

Julie forgot Julie’s homework at Julie’s house and Julie was late for school. Julie had to tell Julie’s teacher that Julie forgot Julie’s homework and Julie’s teacher was not happy. Julie’s teacher made Julie sit in silent lunch and do Julie’s homework all over again.

Can you imagine having to speak like this??? This is why we have pronouns!!!


The paragraph with pronouns

The paragraph with pronouns…

Julie forgot her homework at her house and she was late for school. She had to tell her teacher that she forgot her homework and her teacher was not happy. Julie’s teacher made her sit in silent lunch and do her homework all over again.

Isn’t that easier???


Antecedents

Antecedents

  • A pronoun must have an antecedent – that is the noun to which the pronoun is referring

  • Example: Austin lost hiswallet and he is looking for it everywhere.

    his & he refer to Austin, it refers to wallet


Identify the pronouns and their antecedents in the sentences below

Identify the pronouns and their antecedents in the sentences below.

  • The frog ran into the road and a car ran over it.

  • Mary caught her hair in the hairdryer and scorched it terribly.

  • Scotty talked himself into going out for baseball and he is very good at it.

  • Brandon is ready for deer season and he bought a new gun with his own money.


Antecedents and pronouns

Antecedents and pronouns

  • The frog ran into the road and a car ran over it. (it = frog)

  • Mary caught herhair in the hairdryer and scorched it terribly. (her=Mary; it=hair)

  • Scotty talked himself into going out for baseball and he is very good at it. (himself, he=Scotty; it=baseball)

  • Brandon is ready for deer season and he bought a new gun with his own money. (he, his=Brandon)


Different kinds of pronouns

Different kinds of pronouns

  • Personal pronouns – stand for people; Bobby = he; Cindy = she; dog = it;

  • First person – I me my mine we us our ours

  • Second person – you your yours

  • Third person – he him his she her hers it its; they them their theirs


Identify the personal pronouns and tell if they are first second or third person

Identify the personal pronouns and tell if they are first, second or third person.

  • The dentist asked me questions before looking at my teeth.

  • You need to find your insurance card before you go to the doctor.

  • He washed the car quickly and went on to finish the rest of his chores.

  • Dad told the mechanics to call him about his bill

  • I really don’t know why we have to go to all this trouble just to throw a party.


Reflexive pronouns

Reflexive pronouns

  • Refers back to the subject

  • Always ends in –self or –selves

  • Myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves

  • Example: Buddy fixed himself a sandwich and watched t.v. until his mom got home.


Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns

  • Personal pronouns that show ownership

  • Do not confuse the possessive its with it’s; it’s is the contraction for “it is” or “it has”

  • Example: The cat chased its tail around in circles until it fell over into its bowl of water.


Demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns…

  • Points out a particular or specific person, place, thing or idea

  • this, that, these, those

  • Example:

    This is what I want. Or…

    These are the right shoes. Or…

    I always like to do that. Or…

    Gabby likes those, too!


Demonstrative pronouns cont d

Demonstrative pronouns, cont’d…

  • Do not confuse a demonstrative pronoun with an adjective; this, that, these, and those can be an adjective if they have something to describe…

  • Such as this car, that road, these flowers, those trees

  • It’s only a demonstrative pronoun if it is taking the place of a noun and works on its own


Demonstrative pronoun or adjective

Demonstrative pronoun or adjective?

  • You can have one of those if you want.

  • These papers are not graded yet.

  • I need this done right now.

  • Do you have one of these?

  • You could do that if you wanted to.

  • That cow looks sick.

  • This is the longest day of my life!

  • This book is one of the best I’ve ever read.


Answers for demonstrative or adjective

Answers for Demonstrative or Adjective?

  • You can have one of those if you want. (dem)

  • These papers are not graded yet. (adj)

  • I need this done right now. (dem)

  • Do you have one of these? (dem)

  • You could do that if you wanted to. (dem)

  • That cow looks sick. (adj)

  • This is the longest day of my life! (dem)

  • This book is one of the best I’ve ever read. (adj)


Indefinite pronoun

Indefinite pronoun…

  • Refers to a non-specific person, place, thing, or idea

  • Examples: everyone (who exactly is everyone?) many (just how many is many?) some (how many?) something (can you be more specific?) each (each what?)


Identify the pronouns in the sentences below

Identify the pronouns in the sentences below…

  • Is your puppy losing its baby teeth?

  • This jacket is mine; that one must be his.

  • Something is different about your hair.

  • Your locker is next to hers.

  • Everyone knows the answer to that.

  • Shelia reminded herself of her test.

  • They treated themselves to a movie.

  • This is good, but her project is better.


Pronouns identified

Pronouns identified…

  • Is your puppy losing its baby teeth?

  • This jacket is mine; that one must be his.

  • Something is different about your hair.

  • Your locker is next to hers.

  • Everyone knows the answer to that.

  • Shelia reminded herself of her test.

  • They treated themselves to a movie.

  • This is good, but her project is better.


Now tell me what kind they are

Now tell me what kind they are…

  • Is your puppy losing its baby teeth?

  • This jacket is mine; that one must be his.

  • Something is different about your hair.

  • Your locker is next to hers.

  • Everyone knows the answer to that.

  • Shelia reminded herself of her test.

  • They treated themselves to a movie.

  • This is good, but her project is better.

    Your choices are: personal, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite or reflexive


Identifying pronouns

Identifying pronouns…

  • Is your (pers) puppy losing its (poss) baby teeth?

  • This jacket is mine (poss); that one (indef) must be his (poss).

  • Something (indef) is different about your (poss) hair.

  • Your (poss) locker is next to hers (poss).

  • Everyone (indef) knows the answer to that (demon).

  • Shelia reminded herself (reflex) of her (poss) test.

  • They (person) treated themselves (reflex) to a movie.

  • This (demon) is good, but her (poss) project is better.

    Your choices are: personal, possessive, demonstrative, indefinite or reflexive


Verbs action and linking

Verbs – action and linking

  • Shows action or a state of being

  • Action verbs – expresses physical or mental action

  • Linking – connects the subject of a sentence with a word in the predicate that explains or describes the subject


Action verb

Action verb

Find the action verbs in each of these sentences:

  • I like it when we use computers in math class.

  • Please clear the table, Jesse, and wash the dishes.

  • I understand science much better than I comprehend math.


Linking verbs

Linking verbs

Linking verbs list: forms of the verb “be”

amis are was were has been

have beenhad beenwill beshall be

may bemight becan beshould be

would have been

Other linking verbs:

appeargrowseemstay

becomelooksmelltaste

feelremainsoundturn


Linking or action

Linking or Action???

Some verbs can be action or linking…

Mark suddenly appeared from behind the bush.

Mark appeared lonely at the dance.

Lora smelled the flowers.

The flowers smelled sweet.


Action or linking

Action or Linking???

  • Here’s a trick:

    If you aren’t sure if the verb is linking or not, try substituting a linking “be” verb in its place

    Lora smelled the flowers.

    Lora is the flowers. (doesn’t work, so it must be an action verb)

    The flowers smelled sweet.

    The flowers are sweet. (it works! So this is a linking verb)


Linking or action use the trick and identify each verb as action or linking

Linking or action? Use the trick and identify each verb as action or linking?

  • The pie tasted so good after dinner.

  • The flowers grow well in my yard.

  • He grew tired as the speech went on.

  • Kiah looked everywhere for her jacket.

  • Tony sounded the alarm as the fire spread.

  • Shirah looked surprised at the party.

  • The speakers sounded broken.

  • She seemed worried all afternoon.

  • The weather turned nasty at dark.

  • He turned the light off.


Helping verbs

Helping verbs

Some verbs that look like linking verbs, are actually helping verbs. They “help” the main action verb.

The flowers have attracted many butterflies.

You may find the answers in this book.

It could have been broken before now.

I do not like that flavor ice cream.

***The helping verb and main verb = verb phrase.


Verbs practice identify the verbs in the following sentences don t forget the helping verbs

Verbs practice: identify the verbs in the following sentences. Don’t forget the helping verbs.

  • This packet of information will help you.

  • Perhaps you and a friend can practice together.

  • At first, it may be a challenge.

  • You run fast and jump really high.

  • He looked very angry last night.

  • A cloud appeared out of the sky.

  • He grew three inches over the summer.

  • Josy learned how to dance the new salsa dance.

  • Those berries are called blueberries.

  • You can make the world a better place.


Verbs now identify the verbs as linking or action

Verbs: Now, identify the verbs as linking or action.

  • This packet of information will help you.

  • Perhaps you and a friend can practice together.

  • At first, it may be a challenge.

  • You run fast and jump really high.

  • He looked very angry last night.

  • A cloud appeared out of the sky.

  • He grew three inches over the summer.

  • Josy learned the new salsa dance.

  • Those berries are called blueberries.

  • You can make the world a better place.


Adjectives

Adjectives

  • Modify (describe) nouns & pronouns

  • Answer these four questions:

    Which one?

    What kind?

    How many?

    How much?

    Memorize these questions!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Adjectives1

Adjectives

  • Which one? The blue coat, sixth grade

  • What kind? Nike shoes, the gentle dog

  • How many? Two tickets, most players

  • How much? A full glass, no work

    Articles are the adjectives a, an & the


Adjectives identify the adjectives in the sentences do not include a an the

Adjectives: identify the adjectives in the sentences. Do not include a, an & the

  • A silvery moon rode down the western sky.

  • It shed a pale light on the countryside.

  • Long meadows spread out between two hills.

  • The smell of wild grass was strong.

  • The only sound we heard was the sharp crackle of the fire.

  • Suddenly, several stars came out.

  • I watched until the entire sky was glowing with bright stars.

  • I was lonely and happy at the same time.


Proper adjectives

Proper adjectives

  • Formed from proper nouns

  • Begin with capital letter

  • Examples: Japanese islands, Mexican food, Chinese alphabet, Mayan art, Christian beliefs


Adverbs

Adverbs

  • Modify (describe) verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs

  • Many times end in –ly

  • Can be in almost any position in the sentence

  • Answer these four questions:

    When?

    Where?

    How?

    To what extent?

    Memorize these four questions for adverbs!!!


Adverbs1

Adverbs

  • Examples:

    When? Now, then, yesterday, soon

    Where? Here, away, down, outside

    How? Slowly, easily, quietly, clearly

    To what extent? Very, really, too, almost

    ***Note: NOT is always an adverb! Even in a contraction, such as can’t

    (n’t is the adverb not)


Adverb practice identify the adverbs in the sentences remember when where how to what extent

Adverb practice: identify the adverbs in the sentences. Remember: When? Where? How? To what extent?

  • Please carefully put the package there.

  • She always makes me so mad!

  • Would you briefly explain the plan?

  • Very early in her career, she made millions.

  • You will not find any answers here.

  • Soon we will hear the results of the eagerly awaited race.

  • I shut my door softly and tiptoed quietly away.

  • We seldom see this almost ridiculous behavior.


Adverbs2

Adverbs

  • Please, carefully put the package there.

  • She always makes me so mad!

  • Now, would you briefly explain the plan?

  • Veryearly in her career, she made millions.

  • You will not find any answers here.

  • Soon we will hear the results of the eagerly awaited race.

  • I shut my door softly and tiptoed quietlyaway.

  • We seldom see this almost ridiculous behavior.


Prepositions

Prepositions

  • Shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence

  • Always used in a prepositional phrase

  • Prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and the object of the preposition

    Example: under the table, behind the car


Prepositions commonly used list

aboardabout

aboveacross

afteragainst

alongamong

aroundat

beforebehind

belowbeneath

besidebetween

beyondby

downduring

exceptfor

fromininto

likeofoff

onoverpast

sincethrough

throughouttotoward

underunderneath

untilupupon

withwithin

without

Prepositions: Commonly used list


Prepositions compound prepositions

Prepositions: compound prepositions

According to

Aside from

Because of

In addition to

In place of

In spite of

Next to

On account of

Out of


Prepositions identify the prepositional phrases in these sentences

Prepositions: identify the prepositional phrases in these sentences

  • During the summer I spend a lot of time in the pool.

  • I bought a new outfit for the party at the mall.

  • Before you start, I think you might need some help with that project.

  • You won’t have any tests in this class until next week.

  • They live near the airport and behind the stadium.


Prepositions1

Prepositions

  • During the summer I spend a lot of timein the pool.

  • I bought a new outfit for the partyat the mall.

  • Before you start, I think you might need some help with that project.

  • You won’t have any tests in this classuntil next week.

  • They live near the airport and behind the stadium.


Conjunctions

Conjunctions

  • Joins words or groups of words

  • Two kinds of conjunctions:

    Coordinating – and, or, for, nor, but, so, yet

    Correlative – works in pairs;

    neither…nor, either…or, and so…but yet,

    both…and, not only…but also


Conjunctions find the conjunctions in the sentences below

Conjunctions- find the conjunctions in the sentences below

  • Both Andrew and Brett like to turkey hunt.

  • You love music, yet you don’t play any instrument.

  • Neither Shelia nor Kerri have their homework, and I can’t find mine.

  • Bugs Bunny is funny, but Elmer Fudd is funnier!

  • You must come with us or go with Mom.

  • Lee not only excels at football, but he also plays baseball well.

  • Mitch can either go to the beach or play all-stars.

  • Jen likes to dance, so she is taking lessons.


Interjections

Interjections

  • Only shows emotion or adds emphasis

  • Does not change the meaning of the sentence

  • Usually set off with commas

  • Examples:

    Wow! You really did get a haircut!

    Well, maybe Mom will let me go.

    I kind of like, you know, that new guy.


Hallelujah you are through with the parts of speech

Hallelujah!!! You are through with the Parts of Speech!!!

  • You have now covered all eight of them:

    Nouns

    Pronouns

    Verbs

    Adjectives

    Adverbs

    Prepositions

    Conjunctions

    Interjections


Label every word in each sentence

Label every word in each sentence:

  • The little blue dog jumped very high in the air for the frisbee.

  • Butterflies fluttered gracefully among the pink and purple blooms.

  • Goldfish are good pets for people who don’t have much time.

  • The big, brown truck backed slowly down the long, concrete driveway.

  • Yeah, I really want pizza, but I don’t feel like going to get one, so you can go for it.


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