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Overview of the Internet/Broadband RTV 3000 Introduction to Telecommunication Evolution of the Internet Question posed in 1963 by RAND, a cold war think tank. “How could the U.S. communicate after a nuclear attack?” Internet Evolution Answer The communication network would require:

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Overview of the Internet/Broadband

RTV 3000

Introduction to Telecommunication

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Evolution of the Internet

Question posed in 1963 by RAND, a cold war think tank.

“How could the U.S. communicate after a nuclear attack?”

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Internet Evolution


The communication network would require:

  • The intelligence to reside in the endpoints

  • Any endpoint could talk to any other endpoint

  • Network Routing be self-healing after attack

  • No centralized control

  • Messages divided into packets that could take any number of paths from source to destination

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Internet Evolution

  • Internet began as ARPANET in the late 1960s, run by Dept. of Defense

  • Development of TCP/IP Protocols in mid 1970s, incorporated into ARPANET in 1983

  • NSF supports TCP/IP in CSNET in early 1980s

  • ARPANET and CSNET merge in 1980s

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Internet Evolution

  • NSF subsidizes NSFNET backbone and regional networks in 1986

  • NSF Phases out federal support for Internet backbone in 1992-95

  • Internet commercialized in mid 1990s

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The World Wide Web

  • Created by Tim Berners-Lee in 1991 at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN)

  • Portion of the Internet that utilizes a software program (browser) to display WebPages

  • Browser development: Mosaic in 1993; Netscape Navigator popularized in mid 90s

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Internet in Context

  • Internet is convergence

  • Unique Multi-modal capabilities and user-driven qualities compared to previous telecommunication technologies

  • Many predict shared protocol of the Internet is platform of the future

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Brief overview of the Internet

  • Digital data and bits (1’s & O’s) are packet switched on interconnected networks through use of routers and communication links

  • Packet-switching involves TCP/IP

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Brief overview of the Internet

  • Best efforts routing; packets of related-information (e.g. email) may travel different paths

  • Packets reassembled at final destination

  • e2e allows for creative applications and software

  • Openness key to daisy chaining, e2e & more

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Who governs the Internet?

  • No centralized controlling authority

  • Standards and protocols set by a number of self-governing organizations, including:

    • Internet Society (ISOC)

    • Internet Architecture Board (IAB)

    • Internet Engineering Task Forces (IETF)

    • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

  • Existing governing and political institutions may influence policy

  • Misnomer to believe Internet is completely unregulated

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Internet is convergence

  • Common product/service platform that support multiple functions

  • Driven by digitization, bandwidth and throughput

  • Form of information carried traditionally by different delivery mechanisms: voice (telephone), data (private corporate network), and video (broadcast network or cable tv)

  • Multi-modal content

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Why Broadband Throughput Matters: Transfer Rate of a 10-Megabyte File (10-20 minute video clip)

  • Telephone modems, 28.8 Kbps – 46 minutes, 56.6 Kbps – 24 minutes

  • ISDN modem, 128 Kbps – 10 minutes

  • Typical Cable & ADSL, 1.54 Mbps – 52 seconds

  • 4-Mbps – 20 seconds

  • 10-Mbps – 8 seconds

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From Narrowband to Broadband

  • Definition of Broadband Internet

    • Internet access with a minimum capacity of greater or equal to 256 kbit/s in one or both directions (ITU)

    • 200 kbit/s in or both directions (FCC)

  • Fixed Broadband: DSL, Cable Modem, FTTH

  • Mobile Broadband: W-CDMA, CDMA 2000

  • Portable Internet: WLAN, WMAN, WiMAX

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From Narrowband to Broadband

  • In the U.S. Cable Modem is dominant technology for fixed broadband services (44.1 %).

  • High-speed lines by technology as of June 30th, 2006

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Internet Usage in the U.S.

  • Estimated Internet users: 185 M (2005)

  • Internet Users per 100 inhabitants: 63.00 (2005)

  • Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants: 22.5 (2005)

  • PC Penetration Rate: 76.22 (2005)

  • U.S. Ranked 12th in terms of Internet users per 100 inhabitants

  • TOP 5 Countries in Internet usage:

    1. Iceland

    2. New Zealand

    3. Sweden

    4. Australia

    5. Korea

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Broadband Deployment

  • Benefits of Broadband Deployment

  • Approximately 50 million households in the U.S. (45 percent) subscribe to a broadband connection (high speed Internet access)

    • Currently more than 4 Million Voice-over Internet Protocol (VoIP) residential telephone subscribers in U.S.

    • 50 Million Internet Telephony (Skype) Users

    • Total High-speed lines in the U.S. (1999-2006)

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Fixed Broadband Deployment

  • US Ranks only 15th among 30 OECD countries in terms of fixed broadband penetration rate.

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Mobile Broadband Deployment

  • US Ranks only 24th among ITU membership countries in terms of mobile broadband penetration rate.

  • Mobile Broadband Penetration Rate: 1.46 per 100 inhabitants (ITU, 2005).

  • 2.2% of total mobile subscribers were mobile broadband users.

  • TOP 5 Mobile Broadband Economies:

    1. Korea

    2. Italy

    3. Japan

    4. Portugal

    5. Hong Kong, China

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Broadband Deployment

  • Broadband Infrastructure is a key component of knowledge economy

  • Q: What factors might influence broadband deployment in the national level?

    • Policy Factors

    • Information and Communication Technology Factors

    • Industry Factors

    • Economic/Consumer Factors

    • Socio-Cultural Factors

  • Digital Divide of great concern, nationally and especially among developing nations

  • Q: Why the U.S. is lagging significantly behind in broadband deployment?

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Convergence and Broadband

  • Media Convergence

  • DAB (digital audio broadcasting)

  • DVB (digital video broadcasting)

  • DMB (digital multimedia broadcasting)

  • IPTV (internet protocol television)

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Convergence and Broadband: DMB

  • Satellite DMB (S-DMB) and Terrestrial DMB (T-DMB)

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Fixed-Line Telephone

Broadband Internet

Mobile Telephone

Fixed-Line Television

Cox Communications and Comcast

(VoIP, Cable Modem, and Cable Television

Verizon and AT&T Cingular

Voice Telephone, DSL, IPTV, and Mobile Phone

Convergence and Broadband:Multi-play

  • Triple- and Quadruple-Play of Telecommunications and Media Firms

  • Login