Hackman oldham s job characteristics model
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Hackman & Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model. Core Dimensions. Psychological States. Outcomes. Skill Variety Task Identity Task Signif. High intrinsic motivation High job per- ormance High job satis- faction Low absentee ism & turnover. Meaningfulness of Work. Responsibility

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Hackman oldham s job characteristics model l.jpg
Hackman & Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model

Core Dimensions

Psychological States


Skill Variety

Task Identity

Task Signif.

High intrinsic


High job per-


High job satis-


Low absentee

ism & turnover


of Work


for outcomes


Knowledge of



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Moderating Variables for the Job Characteristics Model

  • Growth need strength

    • job is a vehicle for personal growth, sense of achievement, avenue for feeling success

  • Knowledge and skills

  • Satisfaction with extrinsic aspects of work

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Motivating Potential Score

Skill Variety +Task Identity+Task Significance








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Implementing Concepts for the Job Characteristics Model

  • Combine tasks: Effects skill variety, task identity, & task significance

  • Group tasks into natural work units: Effects task significance and task identity

  • Give workers contact with customers: Effects skill variety, autonomy, feedback

  • Vertically load jobs: Effects autonomy

  • Open feedback channels: Effects feedback

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Designing Jobs for Teams

  • Team has to be an identifiable group, doing a specified piece of work, and be self-managing

  • Key behaviors: Ask for ideas, give suggestions,. listen to others, share information, help others

  • Manager’s role: Make alterations needed for effective group performance, consult

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Goals That Motivate

  • Specific Goals

  • Difficult Goals

  • Goal Acceptance

  • Goal Feedback

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Why Goals Motivate

  • Mobilize energy in relation to goal

  • Focus attention towards goals attainment

  • Encourages setting of action plans or strategies for goal attainment

  • Encourages persistence until goal is attained

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Enhancing Goal Acceptance

  • Participation

  • Rewards

  • Supportiveness

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Incentives for Individuals

  • For Executives

    • Compensation tied to achieving strategic goals

  • For Lower Level Employees

    • Tied to performance: bonuses, commissions, piecework

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Incentives for Groups

  • Team incentives

  • Profit sharing

  • Gain sharing

  • Stock options

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Where Pay Fails to Motivate

  • Bonuses or merit pay is too small

  • Non-existent link between pay and performance

  • Performance appraisal is done poorly

  • Effect of unions

  • Adaptation problems

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Effective Reward Systems

  • Set high goals for performance

  • Develop accurate ways to measure performance

  • Train supervisors in performance appraisal

  • Link pay to performance

  • Make increases noticeable and meaningful

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Backwards & Forwards

  • Summing up: Examined how Hackman’s & Oldhams Job characteristics Model can be used to redesign jobs to engage motivation; studied how and why goals setting works & looked at ways to use pay as a motivator

  • Next time we begin our study of groups in the organization looking at how they function and the role of cohesiveness