Electron configurations and orbital diagrams
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Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams. Maximum Number of Electrons In Each Sublevel. Maximum Number of Electrons In Each Sublevel. Maximum Number SublevelNumber of Orbitals of Electrons. s 1 2 p 3 6 d 5 10

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Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams

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Electron configurations and orbital diagrams

Electron ConfigurationsandOrbital Diagrams


Maximum number of electrons in each sublevel

Maximum Number of Electrons In Each Sublevel

Maximum Number of Electrons

In Each Sublevel

Maximum Number

SublevelNumber of Orbitals of Electrons

s 1 2

p 3 6

d 5 10

f 7 14

LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World , 1996, page 146


General rules

General Rules

Aufbau Principle

Electrons fill the lowest energy orbitals first.

“Lazy Tenant Rule”

6d

5f

6d

7s

5f

6p

7s

5d

6p

4f

6s

5d

4f

5p

6s

4d

5p

5s

4d

4p

5s

3d

4p

4s

3d

4s

3p

Energy

3p

3s

3s

2p

2p

2s

2s

1s

1s

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Order in which subshells are filled with electrons

Order in which subshells are filled with electrons

1s

2s

3s

4s

5s

6s

7s

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

3d

4d

5d

6d

4f

5f

2 2 6 2 6 2 10 6 2 10

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d …


Energy level diagram of a many electron atom

Energy Level Diagram of a Many-Electron Atom

6s 6p 5d 4f

32

5s 5p 4d

18

4s 4p 3d

18

Arbitrary

Energy Scale

3s 3p

8

2s 2p

8

1s

2

NUCLEUS

O’Connor, Davis, MacNab, McClellan, CHEMISTRY Experiments and Principles1982, page 177


General rules1

General Rules

Pauli Exclusion Principle

Each orbital can hold TWO electrons with opposite spins.

Wolfgang Pauli

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


General rules2

General Rules

Hund’s Rule

Within a sublevel, place one electron per orbital before pairing them.

“Empty Bus Seat Rule”

RIGHT

WRONG

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Filling rules for electron orbitals

Filling Rules for Electron Orbitals

Aufbau Principle: Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest

energy orbitals available until all the electrons of the atom

have been accounted for.

Pauli Exclusion Principle: An orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons.

To occupy the same orbital, two electrons must spin in opposite

directions.

Hund’s Rule: Electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum

number of unpaired electrons results.

*Aufbau is German for “building up”


Notation

Orbital Diagram

Notation

8

O

15.9994

2s

2p

1s

O

8e-

  • Electron Configuration

1s22s22p4

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Electron configurations

Electron Configurations

Orbital Filling

Element 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz 3s Configuration

Electron

H

He

Li

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

1s1

1s2

1s22s1

1s22s22p2

1s22s22p3

1s22s22p4

1s22s22p5

1s22s22p6

1s22s22p63s1


Electron configurations and orbital diagrams

Energy Level Diagram

Nitrogen

6s 6p 5d 4f

Bohr Model

5s 5p 4d

4s 4p 3d

Arbitrary Energy Scale

3s 3p

N

Hund’s Rule “maximum

number of unpaired orbitals”.

2s 2p

1s

Electron Configuration

N = 1s22s22p3

NUCLEUS

HHeLiCNAlArFFe La

CLICK ON ELEMENT TO FILL IN CHARTS


Electron configurations and orbital diagrams

Energy Level Diagram

N

Iron

6s 6p 5d 4f

Bohr Model

5s 5p 4d

4s 4p 3d

Arbitrary Energy Scale

3s 3p

2s 2p

1s

Electron Configuration

Fe = 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6

NUCLEUS

HHeLiCNAlArFFe La

CLICK ON ELEMENT TO FILL IN CHARTS


Periodic patterns

Periodic Patterns

1s

2p

2s

3p

3s

4p

3d

4s

5p

5s

4d

6p

6s

5d

7p

7s

6d

4f

5f

s

p

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1s

d (n-1)

6

7

f (n-2)


Periodic patterns1

Periodic Patterns

Example - Hydrogen

1st column of s-block

1st Period

s-block

1s1

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


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