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Orbital Diagrams. What is an orbital diagram?. An orbital diagram is a representation of an atom where arrows in boxes are used to show the electron configuration of the atom. s =  p =  d =  f = . 3 Principles.

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What is an orbital diagram
What is an orbital diagram?

  • An orbital diagram is a representation of an atom where arrows in boxes are used to show the electron configuration of the atom.

    s =  p =  d =  f = 


3 principles
3 Principles

  • The location of the electrons in an atom can be predicted by using and applying three important principles:

    • the Aufbau principle,

    • the Pauli exclusion principle

    • Hund’srule.


Aufbau principle
Aufbau Principle

  • The Aufbau Principle states that electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbital available until all the electrons of the atom have been accounted for.


Pauli exclusion principle
Pauli Exclusion Principle

  • The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that an orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons. To occupy the same orbital, 2 electrons must spin in opposite directions. Each electron is represented by an arrow. The arrow points upward when the electron spin () is counterclockwise and downward when the electron spin is clockwise.


Hund s rule
Hund’s Rule

  • The Hund’sRule states that electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results.


Sample problems
SAMPLE PROBLEMS:

Element Total electrons EC OD

Be




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