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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Orbital Diagrams' - tanek

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What is an orbital diagram?

- An orbital diagram is a representation of an atom where arrows in boxes are used to show the electron configuration of the atom.
s = p = d = f =

3 Principles

- The location of the electrons in an atom can be predicted by using and applying three important principles:
- the Aufbau principle,
- the Pauli exclusion principle
- Hund’srule.

Aufbau Principle

- The Aufbau Principle states that electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbital available until all the electrons of the atom have been accounted for.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

- The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that an orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons. To occupy the same orbital, 2 electrons must spin in opposite directions. Each electron is represented by an arrow. The arrow points upward when the electron spin () is counterclockwise and downward when the electron spin is clockwise.

Hund’s Rule

- The Hund’sRule states that electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results.

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