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What is Biodiesel? Who Uses it?. Chelsea Jenkins Virginia Clean Cities Hampton Roads Clean Cities Coalition Virginia Biodiesel Conference James Madison University April 3, 2006. Overview. Brief overview what is Clean Cities? What Is Biodiesel Who Uses Biodiesel (in Virginia).

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what is biodiesel who uses it

What is Biodiesel?Who Uses it?

Chelsea Jenkins

Virginia Clean Cities

Hampton Roads Clean Cities Coalition

Virginia Biodiesel Conference

James Madison University

April 3, 2006

slide2

Overview

  • Brief overview what is Clean Cities?
  • What Is Biodiesel
  • Who Uses Biodiesel (in Virginia)
slide3

Energy InSecurity

THE U.S. IMPORTS OVER ONE-HALF OF ITS PETROLEUM

TRANSPORTATION PETROLEUM USE – 67% OF OVERALL USE

TRANSPORTATION IS 97% DEPENDENT ON PETROLEUM

Source: EIA AEO 2006

slide4

Clean Cities

    • National US DoE voluntary program to promote energy independence in transportation
    • 80 Coalitions nationwide
    • One designated Coalition in Virginia (Hampton Roads)
    • Statewide effort ongoing
    • DoE Website:
    • http://www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities/
    • Virginia Clean Cities:
    • http://www.hrccc.org
slide5

Biofuels

  • Fossil Fuel: a hydrocarbon fuel, such as petroleum, derived from living matter of a previous geologic time.
    • Coal, Oil, Natural Gas
  • Biofuel: Any fuel that derives from biomass – recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts
    • Biodiesel, Ethanol
  • Primary drivers behind introducing biofuels include:
  • Reduce dependency on fossil-fuels
  • Reduce GHG emissions (reduce impact on health, environment)
  • Improve energy security
  • Contribute to rural development through domestic production
slide6

What is Biodiesel

1. Mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids (i.e. methyl or ethyl esters)

2. A diesel replacement fuel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, recycled cooking grease

  • Biodiesel Blend: mixture of biodiesel and petroleum diesel
    • BXX = volume XX% biodiesel
    • Most common blends are B5, B20
  • Physical properties very similar to conventional diesel
    • Must meet the quality requirements of ASTM D6751
slide7
Biodiesel is NOT unrefined vegetable oil or used cooking oil

The use of SVO can lead to engine carbon deposits, reducing engine life or increasing maintenance costs

Successful SVO use is documented, but use requires considerable modifications to diesel equipment

What Is Not Biodiesel?

slide8

Biodiesel

  • Advantages:
    • It’s Easy: Transparent to end-user, easy to implement
      • LDV/HDV, marine, underground mining
      • No increased vehicle equipment cost
      • Minimal infrastructure impact (blending, storage, availability, vehicles)
slide9

pumpkin seed

algae

coconut

hemp

mustard seed

rapeseed

avocado

coffee

jatropha

oats

safflower

brazil nuts

coriander

jojoba

oil palm

sesame

calendula

corn (maize)

kenaf

olives

soybean

cashew nut

cotton

linseed (flax)

opium poppy

sunflowers

castor beans

euphorbia

lupine

peanuts

cocoa (cacao)

hazelnuts

macadamia nuts

pecan nuts

Biodiesel

  • Advantages:
    • It’s Domestic: MADE IN USA
    • It Stimulates Local Economy: Supports Our Farmers!
      • value added product, supports rural economies, protects farmland from development pressures
slide10

Biodiesel

  • Advantages:
    • It’s Renewable, Biodegradable, & Nontoxic
    • It’s Efficient: Very favorable energy balance, 3.2 to 1
    • It’s Engine Friendly: Better engine performance
      • High flash point: 260°F v 117°F
      • Lubricity properties
      • Higher cetane rating
slide11

DIESEL

BIODIESEL

Biodiesel

  • Advantages:
    • It’s Healthier: Lower emissions (Example: DDC Series 50), US DoA, US DoE
      • Carbon monoxide: 38% lower
      • Unburned HC: 83% lower
      • Oxides of Nitrogen: 11.3% higher??
      • Particulates: 49% lower
      • Smoke and odor are much better
      • PAH, nPAH, & air toxics lower
    • It’s Carbon Neutral
      • Closed carbon cycle
slide12

Biodiesel

  • Disadvantages:
    • Increased price relative to diesel
    • Petroleum displacement potential of B20 relatively limited
    • Relatively limited criteria emissions benefits (NOx)
slide13

Biodiesel

  • Disadvantages:
    • Cold handling and storage of B100
      • soybean based biodiesel start to crystallize at 0C
    • Oxidative stability
      • old fuel can become acidic and form sediments and varnish
    • Excellent solvent
      • filter clogging during transition from petrol diesel
      • replace natural rubber components
    • Supply
    • Lower energy content (8% less BTU/gal)

Btu/lbBtu/gal

No. 2 Diesel 18,300 129,050

Biodiesel 16,000 118,170

(12.5% less) (8% less)

slide14
Biodiesel production & use has grown dramatically

NBB estimates 75 million gallons in 2005

Current production capacity is more than 290 million annual gallons

More than 570 million annual gallons under construction or planned

Current U.S. avg. rack price $2.00/gal (vs. $1.86 for No. 2 diesel)

Prices pre-tax, pre-tax credit

Who Uses Biodiesel?

Who’s using it?

U.S. Postal Service

U.S. DoD, DoE, and DoA

Countless school districts, transit authorities, national parks, public utility companies, and garbage and recycling companies

Credit: Robert McCormick, NREL

slide16

Biodiesel retail locations

Source: National Biodiesel Board

slide17

2005 Virginia Fleets

US NAVY

Portsmouth

Yorktown

Westmoreland Schools

Market Development in Virginia – B20 Fleets

Existing B20 Fleets- 2004:

100kgal/yr

Mt. Jackson B20: Est. 1 million gal/yr

VALLEY PROTEINS

slide18

VA Biodiesel Experience – Arlington County

  • Arlington County operates all diesel equipment on B20, since 2001
    • Over 100 school buses, various makes, MY1991 through 2004
    • 100,000+ gallons of B100 annually
    • No operational problems identified with biodiesel use

Case Study Available: http://www.hrccc.org/biofuels/ArlingtonB20Study.pdf

slide19

B20 Pilots

Northumberland Schools

Sysco Hampton Roads

Reports available:http://www.hrccc.org/biofuels/SyscoB20PilotC.pdf

http://www.hrccc.org/biofuels/northumberlandB20A.pdf

slide20

B20 Readiness

  • Prepare fleet for acceptance and use of B20
    • Tank Cleaning
    • Filtration/Plumbing
  • Northumberland Co. Schools:
    • $1579 for 6,000-gallon tank
  • Westmoreland Co. Schools:
    • $2826 for 2x 10,000-gallon tanks

Westmoreland Schools

slide21
Retails Locations

Heathsville, VA

Culpeper, VA

Harrisonburg

Distribution

Bagwell Oil (Onancock)

Culpeper Petrol Coop (Culpeper)

Frederick Nothrup, Inc. (Warsaw)

Griffin Oil & Propane (Suffolk)

Holtzman Corp (Mt Jackson)

James River Petroleum (Ashland)

Kilduff Oil (Reedville)

Noblett Oil & Propane (Kilmarnock)

Northern Neck Oil Co. (Warsaw)

Peoples Oil (Montross)

PEP-UP (Temperanceville)

Southern Sates (Fredericksburg)

TCH Oil (Irvington)

Thrift Oil (Urbanna)

Ware Oil (Tappahannock)

Northumberland Schools B20 Pilot Summary

Retail Locations

On The Web: http://www.biodiesel.org/buyingbiodiesel/guide/default.shtm

slide22

Industry Analyses

  • MORE INFORMATION
  • National Biodiesel Board: www.biodiesel.org
  • Virginia Clean Cities: www.hrccc.org
  • US Department of Energy Clean Cities: http://www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities/blends/biodiesel.html
  • 2004 BIODIESEL HANDLING AND USE GUIDELINES
  • http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/npbf/pdfs/tp36182.pdf
  • NREL Biomass Oil Analysis
  • http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/34796.pdf
  • Concluded: Biomass oils can displace up to 10 billion gallons of petroleum by 2030 (if incentives or mandates used to promote)
slide23

Hampton Roads

Virginia

Contact Information

www.hrccc.org

Chelsea Jenkins

Tel.: 757-256-8528

E-mail: [email protected]

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