PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION. The Existence of God Reason and Faith God’s Attributes. Chance or Design? Cosmological Argument Ontological Argument. God: The Necessary Being? The Problem of Evil Agnosticism . Philosophy of Religion. How is god/God to be conceived? What is the nature of God?
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Reason and Faith
Chance or Design?
Ontological Argument. God: The Necessary Being?
The Problem of Evil
The study of God, His attributes and His relation to the world.
Beliefs are established by reason working independently of any revelation.
A belief that is mandatory for members of a particular religion
God is perceived doctrinally as all-powerful.
God can do anything.
God created the world ex-nihilo ( from nothing)
God is all-knowing.
God just knows
God knows miraculously. God Knows in a way beyond our understanding.
God exists at any moment of time.
God is all good.God’s Divine Attributes
Cause and Effect Argument: note that it has several parts that work in an orderly, regular and precise manner. Assuming you have never seen a watch before you would still infer that the watch has a purpose of some kind and that it must, therefore, have had a maker. What Paley is doing here is using the Adopting the empiricist approach: our knowledge of causes and effects is based on our experience. For example, you know that if you cut yourself with a knife then you will bleed and feel pain. But how do your know this? Whatever the source of your knowledge, the fact is that you were not born with this fact, it is not innate knowledge. You had to learn it.
Comparison Argument. How can we be sure that this world is so perfect?
How many worlds have you seen? This world, if it is made by a creator, could actually be something of a ‘botched job’ compared to other worlds! However perfect it may seem to us, we only have this world (and, now, a few others we’ve partially explored in this solar system) to go on.Arguments against the Teleological Proof of the Existence of a Theistic God
The Problem of Evil does raise a very important point: this problem is not just attacking the argument of God’s existence, but is questioning the nature of God as understand by orthodox Christianity at the time.
If we are to accept the idea of there being a ‘Cosmic Design’ then one may have a stronger argument.
However, consequently, the concept of ‘God’ may need to be altered:
God is not benevolent. The fact that there is evil in the world could be accepted if the Designer were not a benevolent one.
God is not omnipotent. Perhaps God’s powers are limited. It is possible to create something and yet have limited power over your creation, whether by choice or otherwise. Again, you might imagine creating a computer world with artificial intelligence (AI).The Design Argument to support the Existence of a Cosmic Design
Chaos Theory problem is not just attacking the argument of God’s existence, but is questioning the nature of God as understand by orthodox Christianity at the time. . Another significant scientific theory that may undermine the whole Design Argument is the belief that the universe is not really all that ordered at all! As quantum theory developed early this century, it became clear that at the microscopic level, physical processes were indeterminate; they were not predictable! Over the past thirty years or so it has become clearer that the motion of many physical systems (including planets) are not as regular as Newton had suggested. In other words; nature is not as mechanical as the machines we make at all, and, therefore, the analogy does not work! Such a theory also lends support to Hume’s thesis that there is no obvious sense in which the universe resembles human production. In fact, it could be argued that human production is ‘better’ than the universe, which is why we feel the need to produce things in the first place!Arguments against the Teleological Proof of the Existence of a Cosmic Design
Objection 1: problem is not just attacking the argument of God’s existence, but is questioning the nature of God as understand by orthodox Christianity at the time.
It seems that God does not exist:
God means-infinite goodness. If God existed there would be no evil, but there is evil therefore God does not exists.
Everything in the world can be accomplished by a few principles. The processes of the world can be accounted by other principles.
Natural things can be reduced to one principle, that is the principle of nature. All voluntary things can be reduced to one principle: Human Reason and Will.
There is no need to be supposed the existence of GOD.Objections:
In Nature things that are problem is not just attacking the argument of God’s existence, but is questioning the nature of God as understand by orthodox Christianity at the time. possible are either, to be - they are created, or not to be, they are destroyed; it is impossible for them to always exist, if this is possible, then at one time there could have been nothing in existence.
For something to exist, its existence begins by something already existing.
If at one time Nothing was in existence, it would have been impossible for anything to have begun to exist… and now nothing would be in existence, but there are things that exist, therefore, not all being are merely possible, but must be something which existence is necessary.
Every necessary thing is caused by another.
We must admit the existence of some being having of itself its own necessity - GOD, causing others to exist.From Possibility to Necessity
There are two types of existence: problem is not just attacking the argument of God’s existence, but is questioning the nature of God as understand by orthodox Christianity at the time. We can conceive of things that exist in reality, but we can also conceive of things that do not.
That which exists in the mind could possibly exist in reality. The fact that we are able to conceive of a being that is capable of performing acts that we, as mere mortals, are not, at least points to its possibility, even if you are unable to understand all of its attributes.
Things that exist in reality are greater that those that exist in the mind. Anselm suggests that if you can conceive of something greater in the mind and that there is a possibility that it exists, then its existence would be greater than a figment of someone’s imagination.Main Points of Anselm’s Argument:
a. The 'Theistic God' exists
& Evil does not exist.
b. The 'Theistic God' does not exist
& Evil does exist.
Interconnectedness Without the Divine one of either the following conclusions: