What is religion?. “Religion is the state of being grasped by an ultimate concern, a concern which qualifies all other concerns as preliminary and which itself contains the answer to the question of a meaning of our life.”. Philosophy of Religion.
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What is religion?
“Religion is the state of being grasped by an ultimate concern, a concern which qualifies all other concerns as preliminary and which itself contains the answer to the question of a meaning of our life.”
Evidentialism: Belief in God must be supported by objective evidence
Atheism: Claim that God does not exist
Agnosticism: Not enough evidence to know whether God exists
Basic beliefs can be held without objective, rational evidence
Everything in this world is dependant upon some cause
There cannot be an infinite regress of causes
There must be an uncaused first cause
An uncaused first cause is what we mean by God
Principle of Sufficient Reason -Everything that exists must have a reason that explains why it exists and why it has the properties that it does
William Paley: Natural Theology
Analogy: discovery of a watch on the ground
Argument based solely on an a priori analysis of the concept of the being of God.
God's existence is derived from the very concept of God's being
St. Anselm (1033-1109)
Definition of God: a being than which nothing greater can be conceived
God is the greatest conceivable being
Existence is greater than non-existence
Therefore God necessarily exists
Adversarial Model: Science and Religion attempt to answer the same questions about reality but give conflicting answers
Territorial Model: Science and Religion cannot conflict because they deal with different realms (or territories) of reality
Perspective Model: Science and Religion cannot conflict because they describe reality in different ways
Harmony Model: Findings of Science and Religion are consistent.
Truths of Science make plausible claims of Religion
Moral Evil: Bad actions and their unfortunate results for which humans are morally responsible
Natural Evil: The suffering resulting from natural causes such as genetic defects, diseases and natural disasters
God could not create creatures who have freedom of will but are incapable of doing evil
In order for there to be free choices, there has to be a stable, reliable order of natural cause and effect