Philosophy of religion
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What is religion?. “Religion is the state of being grasped by an ultimate concern, a concern which qualifies all other concerns as preliminary and which itself contains the answer to the question of a meaning of our life.”. Philosophy of Religion.

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Philosophy of Religion

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Philosophy of religion

What is religion?

“Religion is the state of being grasped by an ultimate concern, a concern which qualifies all other concerns as preliminary and which itself contains the answer to the question of a meaning of our life.”

Philosophy of Religion


Philosophy of religion1

Evidentialism: Belief in God must be supported by objective evidence

Philosophy of Religion


Evidentialism

Atheism: Claim that God does not exist

Evidentialism


Evidentialism1

Agnosticism: Not enough evidence to know whether God exists

Evidentialism


Nonevidentialism

Basic beliefs can be held without objective, rational evidence

Nonevidentialism


Nonevidentialism1

Nonevidentialism

  • Fideism: religious belief must be based on faith alone


Evidentialism2

Evidentialism

  • Natural Theology: The project of attempting to provide proofs for God based on reason and experience alone

  • The Cosmological Argument for God


The cosmological argument

The Cosmological Argument

  • St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)


Aquinas first cause argument

Everything in this world is dependant upon some cause

There cannot be an infinite regress of causes

There must be an uncaused first cause

An uncaused first cause is what we mean by God

Aquinas’ First Cause Argument


The cosmological argument1

Principle of Sufficient Reason -Everything that exists must have a reason that explains why it exists and why it has the properties that it does

The Cosmological Argument


The cosmological argument2

The Cosmological Argument

  • Argument from Contingency –

  • Contingent Beings – a beings whose existence is dependant upon something outside itself

  • Necessary Beings – a being who contains the reason for its existence in its own nature


The design argument

The Design Argument

  • Teleological Argument: The argument for God’s existence based on evidence of design in the world


The design argument1

William Paley: Natural Theology

Analogy: discovery of a watch on the ground

The Design Argument


The ontological argument

Argument based solely on an a priori analysis of the concept of the being of God.

God's existence is derived from the very concept of God's being

The Ontological Argument


The ontological argument1

St. Anselm (1033-1109)

Definition of God: a being than which nothing greater can be conceived

The Ontological Argument


The ontological argument2

God is the greatest conceivable being

Existence is greater than non-existence

Therefore God necessarily exists

The Ontological Argument


Science and religion

Adversarial Model: Science and Religion attempt to answer the same questions about reality but give conflicting answers

Science and Religion


Science and religion1

Territorial Model: Science and Religion cannot conflict because they deal with different realms (or territories) of reality

Science and Religion


Science and religion2

Perspective Model: Science and Religion cannot conflict because they describe reality in different ways

Science and Religion


Science and religion3

Harmony Model: Findings of Science and Religion are consistent.

Truths of Science make plausible claims of Religion

Science and Religion


The problem of evil

The Problem of Evil

  • The difficulty of reconciling the existence of suffering and other evils in the world with the existence of God


The problem of evil1

The Problem of Evil

  • 1. God is all powerful /knowing

  • 2. God is good

  • 3. Evil exists


The problem of evil2

Moral Evil: Bad actions and their unfortunate results for which humans are morally responsible

Natural Evil: The suffering resulting from natural causes such as genetic defects, diseases and natural disasters

The Problem of Evil


The problem of evil3

The Problem of Evil

  • Religious Responses to the Problem of Evil

  • Theodicy: the attempt to justify God's permitting evil to occur in the world


The greater goods defense

The Greater Goods Defense

  • God allows evil to exists because it is necessary to achieve a greater good


The greater goods defense1

The Greater Goods Defense

  • Hick: Evil and suffering needed for “soul-making”


The free will defense

God could not create creatures who have freedom of will but are incapable of doing evil

The Free Will Defense


The natural order defense

In order for there to be free choices, there has to be a stable, reliable order of natural cause and effect

The Natural Order Defense


The natural order defense1

The Natural Order Defense

  • In order for there to be free choices, there has to be a stable, reliable order of natural cause and effect


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