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What is religion?. “Religion is the state of being grasped by an ultimate concern, a concern which qualifies all other concerns as preliminary and which itself contains the answer to the question of a meaning of our life.”. Philosophy of Religion.

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Philosophy of religion

What is religion?

“Religion is the state of being grasped by an ultimate concern, a concern which qualifies all other concerns as preliminary and which itself contains the answer to the question of a meaning of our life.”

Philosophy of Religion






Nonevidentialism1
Nonevidentialism evidence

  • Fideism: religious belief must be based on faith alone


Evidentialism2
Evidentialism evidence

  • Natural Theology: The project of attempting to provide proofs for God based on reason and experience alone

  • The Cosmological Argument for God


The cosmological argument
The Cosmological Argument evidence

  • St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)


Aquinas first cause argument

Everything in this world is dependant upon some cause evidence

There cannot be an infinite regress of causes

There must be an uncaused first cause

An uncaused first cause is what we mean by God

Aquinas’ First Cause Argument


The cosmological argument1

Principle of Sufficient Reason -Everything that exists must have a reason that explains why it exists and why it has the properties that it does

The Cosmological Argument


The cosmological argument2
The Cosmological Argument have a reason that explains why it exists and why it has the properties that it does

  • Argument from Contingency –

  • Contingent Beings – a beings whose existence is dependant upon something outside itself

  • Necessary Beings – a being who contains the reason for its existence in its own nature


The design argument
The Design Argument have a reason that explains why it exists and why it has the properties that it does

  • Teleological Argument: The argument for God’s existence based on evidence of design in the world


The design argument1

William Paley: have a reason that explains why it exists and why it has the properties that it does Natural Theology

Analogy: discovery of a watch on the ground

The Design Argument


The ontological argument

Argument based solely on an have a reason that explains why it exists and why it has the properties that it does a priori analysis of the concept of the being of God.

God's existence is derived from the very concept of God's being

The Ontological Argument


The ontological argument1

St. Anselm have a reason that explains why it exists and why it has the properties that it does (1033-1109)

Definition of God: a being than which nothing greater can be conceived

The Ontological Argument


The ontological argument2

God is the greatest conceivable being have a reason that explains why it exists and why it has the properties that it does

Existence is greater than non-existence

Therefore God necessarily exists

The Ontological Argument


Science and religion

Adversarial Model: Science and Religion attempt to answer the same questions about reality but give conflicting answers

Science and Religion


Science and religion1

Territorial Model: Science and Religion cannot conflict because they deal with different realms (or territories) of reality

Science and Religion


Science and religion2

Perspective Model: Science and Religion cannot conflict because they describe reality in different ways

Science and Religion


Science and religion3

Harmony Model: Findings of Science and Religion are consistent.

Truths of Science make plausible claims of Religion

Science and Religion


The problem of evil
The Problem of Evil consistent.

  • The difficulty of reconciling the existence of suffering and other evils in the world with the existence of God


The problem of evil1
The Problem of Evil consistent.

  • 1. God is all powerful /knowing

  • 2. God is good

  • 3. Evil exists


The problem of evil2

Moral Evil: Bad actions and their unfortunate results for which humans are morally responsible

Natural Evil: The suffering resulting from natural causes such as genetic defects, diseases and natural disasters

The Problem of Evil


The problem of evil3
The Problem of Evil which humans are morally responsible

  • Religious Responses to the Problem of Evil

  • Theodicy: the attempt to justify God's permitting evil to occur in the world


The greater goods defense
The Greater Goods Defense which humans are morally responsible

  • God allows evil to exists because it is necessary to achieve a greater good


The greater goods defense1
The Greater Goods Defense which humans are morally responsible

  • Hick: Evil and suffering needed for “soul-making”


The free will defense

God could not create creatures who have freedom of will but are incapable of doing evil

The Free Will Defense


The natural order defense

In order for there to be free choices, there has to be a stable, reliable order of natural cause and effect

The Natural Order Defense


The natural order defense1
The Natural Order Defense stable, reliable order of natural cause and effect

  • In order for there to be free choices, there has to be a stable, reliable order of natural cause and effect


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