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P5 and the Particle Physics Roadmap A. Seiden UC Santa Cruz Chair of P5 Outline of Talk What is P5 Why is it needed Roadmap Prioritization Activities Activities to Date

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P5 and the Particle Physics Roadmap

A. Seiden

UC Santa Cruz

Chair of P5

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Outline of Talk

What is P5

Why is it needed


Prioritization Activities

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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Activities to Date

P5 is a new committee. It is a HEPAP Subpanel, reporting to the DOE and NSF through HEPAP. Charge: Maintain the roadmap for the field and provide prioritization among projects, when requested by the agencies.

Activities to date:

(1) P5 had a major role, along with HEPAP, in providing input for the field for Ray Orbach’s plan for future facilities for the DOE Office of Science.

(2) In 2003 provided first P5 roadmap for the field. The roadmap should be updated every two years. Also, provided prioritization for three projects, all at Fermilab.

(3) In 2004, follow-up on 2003 report, providing more detailed guidance on scheduling for one of the projects at Fermilab.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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P5 Membership

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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P5 and the Particle Physics Roadmap

Community Defines

Compelling Science


If between

$50 M and $600 M

P5 Review







Ready for Construction

P5 review looks at Science, Budgets, International Context, and Competing Options

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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Projects on the Roadmap

Objective: To understand the nature of matter, energy, space and time, linking nature on the microscopic and macroscopic levels. Projects on the roadmap provide a diverse and interconnected research program that aims to keep the U.S. among the world leaders in this area of exploration.

Particle Physics has been very successful at developing a theory that explains on a microscopic level the interactions of ordinary matter and we are now confronting the next set of exciting questions: what is the dark matter that is responsible for herding particles into galaxies, what is the dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of the universe, how should we understand the vacuum, how many dimensions does space really have, what is the deeper relationship between the several types of forces and particles that we have discovered and what is their impact on the evolution of the universe?

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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P5 and the Particle Physics Roadmap

Why P5? An explosion of opportunities based on new discoveries as well as new technological innovations. Requires stewardship.

Ten years ago the primary expensive particle physics projects were at the national laboratories. These each ran their own autonomous programs, each guided by their own Scientific Policy Committee and Program Advisory Committee, with general policy guidance from HEPAP.

Now the field is much more complex:

(1) Our highest priority project toward the end of this decade will be at a foreign laboratory (LHC at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland with the U.S. having the most participants of any country).

(2) Our highest long term priority is a Linear Collider, which will be an international project where the U.S. institutions must cooperate extensively.

(3) There are many proposals for expensive particle astrophysics projects at the intersection of particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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P5 and the Particle Physics Roadmap

Despite these changes, the laboratory – university partnership that has characterized particle physics brings enormous resources to the full range of experiments: projects at accelerators, in space, under ice and under ground. Innovations in accelerators, detectors, electronics and computing continue to enable scientific advances.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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Roadmap as of 2003

R&D is marked in yellow, construction in green, and operation in blue.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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` eternally tranquil

During the 20th century the quest to broaden our view of the universe has shown us the vastness of the universe and revealed violent cosmic phenomena and mysteries

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g eternally tranquil





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Particle Astrophysics on the Roadmap eternally tranquil


GLAST is a project jointly supported by the DOE and NASA with SLAC playing a leading role. It is an example of the important and growing role of interagency collaboration. The primary detector technology used in the experiment, silicon strip detectors, was developed by the particle physics community. The science objectives, spanning astrophysics and particle physics, can be broadly categorized into four themes:

  • Understand the mechanisms of particle acceleration in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), Pulsars, and Super Nova Remnants.

  • Resolve the gamma-ray sky: unidentified sources and diffuse emission.

  • Determine the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients.

  • Probe dark matter and the early Universe.


    This is an NSF initiative sponsored jointly by the Physics Division and the Office of Polar Programs, with LBNL having an important role. As in the case of other projects in the field, many universities as well as international partners are involved, with the University of Wisconsin playing a leading role. The physics objectives are similar to GLAST but neutrinos can come directly from deep in the energy source. Sensitive to the presence of particles that decay into neutrinos within the energy source.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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“Every cubic inch of space eternally tranquilcontains a miracle.”

Walt Whitman

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This seems to be true! eternally tranquil

The universe is filled with something called “Dark Energy” which is accelerating its expansion.

It is also filled with something (called the Higgs field) which gives particles mass.

What are these fundamental “somethings”? Will we some day see a relation? The underlying mechanism for both phenomena are not understood.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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Large Hadron Collider (LHC) eternally tranquil

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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LHC on the Roadmap eternally tranquil

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a new accelerator scheduled to start operation in 2007, is under construction at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. This accelerator will explore nature at the shortest distances (a factor of seven high energy than the present highest energy machine) ever studied in detail. Scientists throughout the world are participating, and the U.S. Government is making a major contribution through programs funded by the NSF and the DOE. Some of the exciting goals:

  • Study the nature of the vacuum and how it gives mass to particles and breaks the symmetry between forces.

  • Study the physics framework behind the symmetry breaking.

  • Search for extra Spatial Dimensions.

  • Search for Quantum Dimensions (Supersymmetry).

  • Search for the physics responsible for dark matter, for example as occurs in supersymmetry.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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eternally tranquil





Quantum Mechanics in Action in the Particle World

Oscillations exist between 3 neutrino types.

Short Journey





Long Journey

Gives  time to change character

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eternally tranquil



Cosmic ray

Atmospheric Neutrinos

Diameter of the earth provides “Long Journey”

Super K Detector

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The Growing Excitement of Neutrino Physics eternally tranquil

American Physical Society Multi-Divisional Neutrino Study over the past year to map out future opportunities has now concluded.

Sponsored by the APS Divisions of:

Nuclear Physics

Particles and Fields


Physics of Beams

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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Neutrino Physics Agenda eternally tranquil

Craft a program to:

  • Tell us if there are only 3 neutrino families.

  • Complete measurements of masses and mixing parameters for the neutrinos.

  • Tell us if neutrinos are their own antiparticles.

    Related theoretical questions:

  • Are neutrinos responsible for the excess of matter over anti-matter?

  • What can neutrinos tell us about new physics beyond the Standard Model?

    Use neutrinos as a tool to study Astrophysics:

  • Probe processes that generate energy in the sun.

  • Look at super-nova explosions.

  • Study cosmic sources of very high-energy particles.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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Prioritization eternally tranquil

I believe the agencies are still learning how to use P5.

The first request for prioritization involved three projects at Fermilab. These needed rapid decisions since any further delays risked jeopardizing the timeliness of the projects.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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Prioritization for Three Projects eternally tranquil

Highest Priority: The Fermilab Tevatron Run II Upgrades, which involve two detectors taking data at the energy frontier. P5 advocated that Fermilab try to maximize the physics-quality data recorded by each experiment by the end of 2008. Requires upgrades to the trigger and data acquisition systems of each experiment. Supported the Fermilab management’s decision that the separate silicon detector upgrades not be built given the cost, schedule, and luminosity expectations for the accelerator.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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Prioritization for Three Projects eternally tranquil

The other two experiments were in the area of quark flavor physics. Both were excellent experiments that could start to take data at the end of this decade. These experiments would look at the imprint of the new physics found at the LHC in the decays of heavy quarks, providing a tool to help decipher the character of that new physics. We recommended that the broader of the two move forward and that the second experiment not proceed based on current budgetary models.

Note that budgetary considerations, after many years of funding stringencies for the field, now play a very large role in limiting opportunities.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004

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Prioritization eternally tranquil

For the future, I believe it would be better to look at a larger set of projects, for example a set that could start construction within a 5 year time window. These compete directly for funds. This is complicated by the fact that some of the projects involve more than just the NSF and the DOE Office of High Energy Physics. However, we can certainly provide the perspective from our own field, to be used in reaching agency decisions.

EPP 2010 November 30, 2004