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Particle Physics. Why do particle physics? Standard model particle physics is high energy physics accelerators detectors triggers, data recording analysis interpretation Webpages of interest http://www-d0.fnal.gov (Fermilab homepage)

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particle physics
Particle Physics
  • Why do particle physics?
  • Standard model
  • particle physics is high energy physics
  • accelerators
  • detectors
  • triggers, data recording
  • analysis
  • interpretation
  • Webpages of interest
    • http://www-d0.fnal.gov (Fermilab homepage)
    • http://sg1.hep.fsu.edu/~wahl/Quarknet/index.html (has links to many particle physics sites)
    • http://www.fnal.gov/pub/tour.html (Fermilab particle physics tour)
    • http://ParticleAdventure.org/ (Lawrence Berkeley Lab.)
    • http://www.cern.ch (CERN -- European Laboratory for Particle Physics)

Outline:

goals of particle physics
Goals of particle physics
  • particle physics or high energy physics
    • is looking for the smallest constituents of matter (the “ultimate building blocks”) and for the fundamental forces between them;
    • aim is to find description in terms of the smallest number of particles and forces (“interactions”)
    • at given length scale, it is useful to describe matter in terms of specific set of constituents which can be treated as fundamental; at shorter length scale, these fundamental constituents may turn out to consist of smaller parts (be “composite”).
      • in 19th century, atoms were considered smallest building blocks,
      • early 20th century research: electrons, protons, neutrons;
      • now evidence that nucleons have substructure - quarks;
      • going down the size ladder: atoms -- nuclei -- nucleons -- quarks -- preons ???... ???
issues of high energy physics
Issues of High Energy Physics

Why?

    • To understand more organized forms of matter
    • To understand the origin and destiny of the universe.
  • Basic questions:
    • Are there irreducible building blocks?
      • Are there few or infinitely many?
      • What are they?
      • What are their properties?
    • What is mass?
    • What is charge?
    • What is flavor?
    • How do the building blocks interact?
    • Why are there 3 forces?
      • gravity, electroweak, strong
      • (or are there more?)
standard model
StandardModel
  • A theoretical model of interactions of elementary particles
  • Symmetry:
    • SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1)
  • “Matter particles”
    • quarks
      • up, down, charm,strange, top bottom
    • leptons
      • electron, muon, tau, neutrinos
  • “Force particles”
    • Gauge Bosons
      •  (electromagnetic force)
      • W, Z (weak, elctromagnetic)
      • g gluons (strong force)
  • Higgs boson
    • spontaneous symmetry breaking of SU(2)
    • mass
building blocks
Building Blocks
  • Fundamental Forces: Bosons
  • Point-like Particles: Fermions
matter constituents and force carriers
Matter constituents and force carriers
  • (1994 summary from the Contemporary Physics Education Project at LBNL)
and top is very very heavy
And top is very very heavy !!!
  • This mass (175 GeV/c2) is ~ 40x larger than the next most massive quark. Is this just an “accident” or does it point to some deeper truth about the nature of Electroweak symmetry breaking ?
brief history of the standard model
Brief History of the Standard Model
  • Late 1920’s - early 1930’s: Dirac, Heisenberg, Pauli, & others extend Maxwell’s theory of EM to include Special Relativity & QM (QED) - but it only works to lowest order!
  • 1933: Fermi introduces 1st theory of weak interactions, analogous to QED, to explain b decay.
  • 1935: Yukawa predicts the pion as carrier of a new, strong force to explain recently observed hadronic resonances.
  • 1937:muon is observed in cosmic rays
  • 1938: heavy W as mediator of weak interactions? (Klein)
  • 1947:pion is observed in cosmic rays
  • 1949: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga introduce renormalization into QED - most accurate theory to date!
  • 1954: Yang and Mills develop Gauge Theories
  • 1950’s - early 1960’s: more than 100 hadronic “resonances” have been observed !
  • 1962 two neutrinos!
  • 1964: Gell-Mann & Zweig propose a scheme whereby resonances are interpreted as composites of 3 “quarks”. (up, down, strange)
brief history of the standard model continued
Brief History of the Standard Model (continued)
  • 1970: Glashow, Iliopoulos, Maiani: 4th quark (charm) explains suppression of K decay into 
  • 1964-1967:spontaneous symmetry breaking (Higgs, Kibble)
  • 1967: Weinberg & Salam propose a unified Gauge Theory of electroweak interactions, introducing the W±,Z as force carriers and the Higgs fieldto provide the symmetry breaking mechanism.
  • 1967: deep inelastic scattering shows “Bjorken scaling”
  • 1969: “parton” picture (Feynman, Bjorken)
  • 1971-1972: Gauge theories are renormalizable (t’Hooft, Veltman, Lee, Zinn-Justin..)
  • 1972: high pt pions observed at the CERN ISR
  • 1973: Gell-Mann & Fritzsch propose that quarks are held together by a Gauge-Field whose quanta, gluons, mediate the strong force Þ Quantum Chromodynamics
  • 1973: “neutral currents”observed (Gargamelle bubble chamber at CERN)
brief history of the standard model continued1
Brief History of the Standard Model (continued)
  • 1975: J/ interpreted as cc bound state (“charmonium”)
  • 1974: J/ discovered at BNL/SLAC;
  • 1976:t lepton discovered at SLAC
  • 1977: discovered at Fermilab in 1977, interpreted as bb bound state (“bottomonium”)  3rd generation
  • 1979: gluon “observed” at DESY
  • 1982: direct evidence for jets in hadron hadron interactions
  • 1983: W±, Z observed at CERN
  • 1995: top quark found at Fermilab (D0, CDF)
  • 2000: direct evidence for tau neutrino () at Fermilab (DONUT experiment)
collisions at the tevatron

UnderlyingEvent

u

u

g

q

d

d

u

u

q

Hard Scatter

Collisions at the Tevatron
  • pp Collisions Þ qq(g) Interact’s

Fermilab

questions at the tevatron
Questions at the Tevatron
  • The Standard Model
    • Electro-Weak (EM + Weak Interact’s)
      • W,Z,g + quarks & leptons
      • Most Accurate Theory ever !(but only for fundamental particles)
      • Simple Processes Þ Real Tests
    • QCD (Strong Force)
      • gluons & quarks
      • High E Þ Accurate PredictionsLow E Þ Not a simple Theory
      • Range of E’s accessible for partons in proton
    • Properties of Particles
      • All Quarks and Leptons Produced(only place for top quark)
      • All Gauge Bosons………..almost
      • What about the Higgs?
more questions
More Questions
  • The SM works great !Why change it ?
    • Has 18 arbitrary parametersÞ Where do they come from ?
    • Is the Higgs really what we think it should be ?
  • 2 Strategies:
    • Look Harder Precision
    • Get a Bigger Hammer Energy
  • The Tevatron is well suited to both of these strategies
experimental high energy physics
Experimental High Energy Physics
  • Method
    • Subject matter to extreme temperatures and densities.
      • Energy ~ 2 trillion eV
      • Temperature ~ 24,000 trillion K
      • Density ~ 2000 x nuclear density
    • Accelerate sub-atomic particles, to closer than 100 millionth the speed of light, and arrange for them to collide head on.
    • Study the debris of particles that emerges from the collisions.
example creating top quarks
ExampleCreating Top Quarks

b (-1/3)

t (+2/3)

P (-1)

P (+1)

t (-2/3)

b (+1/3)

research program
Research Program
  • DØ Experiment
    • To study 2 TeV proton antiproton collisions
    • Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois
    • Next run begins in April 2001
  • CMS Experiment
    • To study 14 TeV proton antiproton collisions
    • CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
    • First run begins in 2005
  • Hellaz Experiment
    • To study 1 MeV neutrinos from the Sun. When?!!!
particle physics experiments
Particle physics experiments
  • Particle physics experiments:
    • collide particles to
      • produce new particles
      • reveal their internal structure and laws of their interactions by observing regularities, measuring cross sections,...
    • colliding particles need to have high energy
      • to make objects of large mass
      • to resolve structure at small distances
    • to study structure of small objects:
      • need probe with short wavelength: use particles with high momentum to get short wavelength
      • remember de Broglie wavelength of a particle  = h/p
    • in particle physics, mass-energy equivalence plays an important role; in collisions, kinetic energy converted into mass energy;
      • relation between kinetic energy K, total energy E and momentum p : E = K + mc2 = (pc)2 + (mc2)c2

___________

about units
About Units
  • Energy - electron-volt
    • 1 electron-volt = kinetic energy of an electron when moving through potential difference of 1 Volt;
      • 1 eV = 1.6 × 10-19Joules = 2.1 × 10-6 W•s
      • 1 kW•hr = 3.6 × 106 Joules = 2.25 × 1025 eV
  • mass - eV/c2
      • 1 eV/c2 = 1.78 × 10-36kg
      • electron mass = 0.511 MeV/c2
      • proton mass = 938 MeV/c2
      • professor’s mass (80 kg)  4.5 × 1037 eV/c2
  • momentum - eV/c:
      • 1 eV/c = 5.3 × 10-28kg m/s
      • momentum of baseball at 80 mi/hr  5.29 kgm/s  9.9×1027eV/c
how to do a particle physics experiment
How to do a particle physics experiment
  • Outline of experiment:
    • get particles (e.g. protons, antiprotons,…)
    • accelerate them
    • throw them against each other
    • observe and record what happens
    • analyse and interpret the data
  • ingredients needed:
    • particle source
    • accelerator and aiming device
    • detector
    • trigger (decide what to record)
    • recording device
    • many people to:
      • design, build, test, operate accelerator
      • design, build, test, calibrate, operate, and understand detector
      • analyse data
    • lots of money to pay for all of this
how to get high energy collisions

-

How to get high energy collisions
  • Need Ecom to be large enough to
      • allow high momentum transfer (probe small distances)
      • produce heavy objects (top quarks, Higgs boson)
      • e.g. top quark production:e+e-® tt, qq ® tt, gg ® tt, …
  • Shoot particle beam on a target (“fixed target”):
      • Ecom = 2ÖEmc2 ~ 20 GeV for E = 100 GeV, m = 1 GeV/c2
  • Collide two particle beams (“collider :
      • Ecom = 2E ~ 200 GeV for E = 100 GeV

-

_

_

_

-

_____

how to make qq collisions cont d
How to make qq collisions, cont’d
  • However, quarks are not found free in nature!
  • But (anti)quarks are elements of (anti)protons.
  • So, if we collide protons and anti-protons we should get some qq collisions.
  • Proton structure functions give the probability that a single quark (or gluon) carries a fraction x of the proton momentum (which is 900 GeV/c at the Tevatron)

_

-

accelerator
Accelerator
  • accelerators:
      • use electric fields to accelerate particles, magnetic fields to steer and focus the beams
      • synchrotron: particle beams kept in circular orbit by magnetic field; at every turn, particles “kicked” by electric field in accelerating station;
      • fixed target operation: particle beam extracted from synchrotron, steered onto a target
      • collider operation: accelerate bunches of protons and antiprotons moving in opposite direction in same ring; make them collide at certain places where detectors are installed
accelerators
ACCELERATORS
  • are devices to increase the energy of charged particles;
    • use magnetic fields to shape (focus and bend) the trajectory of the particles;
    • use electric fields for acceleration.
  • types of accelerators:
    • electrostatic (DC) accelerators
      • Cockcroft-Walton accelerator (protons up to 2 MeV)
      • Van de Graaff accelerator (protons up to 10 MeV)
      • Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator (protons up to 20 MeV)
    • resonance accelerators
      • cyclotron (protons up to 25 MeV)
      • linear accelerators
        • electron linac: 100 MeV to 50 GeV
        • proton linac: up to 70 MeV
    • synchronous accelerators
      • synchrocyclotron (protons up to 750 MeV)
      • proton synchrotron (protons up to 900 GeV)
      • electron synchrotron (electrons from 50 MeV to 90 GeV)
    • storage ring accelerators (colliders)
accelerators cont d
ACCELERATORS, cont’d
  • electrostatic accelerators:
    • generate high voltage between two electrodes charged particles move in electric field, energy gain = charge times voltage drop;
    • Cockcroft-Walton and Van de Graaff accelerators differ in method to achieve high voltage.
  • proton linac (drift tube accelerator):
    • cylindrical metal tubes (drift tubes) along axis of large vacuum tank
    • successive drift tubes connected to opposite terminals of AC voltage source
    • no electric field inside drift tube  while in drift tube, protons move with constant velocity
    • AC frequency such that protons always find accelerating field when reaching gap between drift tubes
    • length of drift tubes increases to keep drift time constant
    • for very high velocities, drift tubes nearly of same length (nearly no velocity increase when approaching speed of light)
accelerators cont d1
Accelerators,cont’d
  • cyclotron
    • consists of two hollow metal chambers called (“dees” for their shape, with open sides which are parallel, slightly apart from each other (“gap”)
    • dees connected to AC voltage source - always one dee positive when other negative  electric field in gap between dees, but no electric field inside the dees;
    • source of protons in center, everything in vacuum chamber;
    • whole apparatus in magnetic field perpendicular to plane of dees;
    • frequency of AC voltage such that particles always accelerated when reaching the gap between the dees;
    • in magnetic field, particles are deflected: p = qBRp = momentum, q = charge, B = magnetic field strength, R = radius of curvature
    • radius of path increases as momentum of proton increases time for passage always the same as long as momentum proportional to velocity this is not true when velocity becomes too big (``relativistic change of mass\'\')
accelerators relativistic effects
Accelerators: “relativistic effects”
  • “relativistic effects”
    • special relativity tells us that certain approximations made in Newtonian mechanics break down at very high speeds;
    • relation between momentum and velocity in “old” (Newtonian) mechanics: p = m v becomes p = mo v, with  = 1/1 - (v/c)2mo = “rest mass”, i.e. mass is replaced by rest mass times  - “relativistic growth of mass”
    • factor  often called “Lorentz factor”; ubiquitous in relations from special relativity; energy: E = moc2
    • acceleration in a cyclotron is possible as long as relativistic effects are negligibly small, i.e. only for small speeds, where momentum is still proportional to speed; at higher speeds, particles not in resonance with accelerating frequency; for acceleration, need to change magnetic field B or accelerating frequency f or both;

________

accelerators cont d2
Accelerators, cont’d
  • electron linac
    • electrons reach nearly speed of light at small energies (at 2 MeV, electrons have 98% of speed of light); no drift tubes; use travelling e.m. wave inside resonant cavities for acceleration.
  • synchrocyclotron:
    • B kept constant, f decreases;
  • synchrotron :
    • B increases during acceleration, f fixed (electron synchrotron) or varied (proton synchrotron); radius of orbit fixed.
particle detectors cont d
Particle detectors, cont’d
  • Scintillator:
    • energy liberated in de-excitation and capture of ionization electrons emitted as light - ``scintillation light\'’
    • light channeled to photomultiplier in light guide (e.g. optical fibers);
    • scintillating materials: certain crystals (e.g. NaI), transparent plastics with doping (fluors and wavelength shifters)
  • proportional tube:
    • metallic tube with thin wire in center, filled with gas, HV between wall (-, “cathode”) and central wire (+,”anode”); strong electric field near wire;
    • charged particle in gas  ionization  electrons liberated;
    • electrons accelerated in electric field  can liberate other electrons by ionization which in turn are accelerated and ionize  “avalanche of electrons” moves to wire  current pulse; current pulse amplified  electronic signal:
    • gas is usually noble gas (e.g. argon), with some additives e.g. carbon dioxide, methane, isobutane,..) as “quenchers”;
particle detectors cont d1
Particle detectors, cont’d
  • multi wire proportional chamber:
    • contains many parallel anode wires between two cathode planes (array of prop.tubes with separating walls taken out)
    • operation similar to proportional tube;
    • cathodes can be metal strips or wires  get additional position information from cathode signals.
  • drift chamber:
    • field shaping wires and electrodes on wall to create very uniform electric field, and divide chamber volume into “drift cells”, each containing one anode wire;
    • within drift cell, electrons liberated by passage of particle move to anode wire, with avalanche multiplication near anode wire;
    • arrival time of pulse gives information about distance of particle from anode wire; ratio of pulses at two ends of anode wire gives position along anode wire;
particle detectors cont d2
Particle detectors, cont’d
  • Cherenkov detector:
    • measure Cherenkov light (amount and/or angle) emitted by particle going through counter volume filled with transparent gas liquid, aerogel, or solid  get information about speed of particle.
  • calorimeter:
    • “destructive” method of measuring a particle\'s energy: put enough material into particle\'s way to force formation of electromagnetic or hadronic shower (depending on kind of particle)
    • eventually particle loses all of its energy in calorimeter;
    • energy deposit gives measure of original particle energy.
  • Note: many of the detectors and techniques developed for particle and nuclear physics are now being used in medicine, mostly diagnosis, but also for therapy.
particle identification
Particle Identification

Muon B&C

Magnet

Muon A-Layer

Hadronic

Layers

Calorimeter

EM Layers

Central Tracking

Beam Axis

e

g

jet

m

n

what do we actually see
What do we actually “see”

Muon

Jet-1

Jet-2

Missing energy

Electron

detectors
Detectors
  • Detectors
    • use characteristic effects from interaction of particle with matter to detect, identify and/or measure properties of particle; has “transducer” to translate direct effect into observable/recordable (e.g. electrical) signal
    • example: our eye is a photon detector;
    • “seeing” is performing a photon scattering experiment:
      • light source provides photons
      • photons hit object of our interest -- some absorbed, some scattered, reflected
      • some of scattered/reflected photons make it into eye; focused onto retina;
      • photons detected by sensors in retina (photoreceptors -- rods and cones)
      • transduced into electrical signal (nerve pulse)
      • amplified when needed
      • transmitted to brain for processing and interpretation
particle interactions with matter
Particle interactions with matter
  • electromagnetic interactions:
    • excitation
    • ionization
    • Cherenkov radiation
    • transmission radiation
    • bremsstrahlung
    • photoelectric effect
    • Compton scattering
    • pair production
  • strong interactions:
    • secondary hadron production,
    • hadronic showers
  • detectors usually have some amplification mechanism
interaction of particles with matter
Interaction of particles with matter
  • when passing through matter,
    • particles interact with the electrons and/or nuclei of the medium;
    • this interaction can be electromagnetic or strong interaction, depending on the kind of particle; its effects can be used to detect the particles;
  • possible interactions and effects in passage of particles through matter:
    • excitation of atoms or molecules (e.m. int.):
      • charged particles can excite an atom or molecule (i.e. lift electron to higher energy state);
      • subsequent de-excitation leads to emission of photons;
    • ionization (e.m. int.)
      • electrons liberated from atom or molecule, can be collected, and charge is detected
    • Cherenkov radiation (e.m. int.):
      • if particle\'s speed is higher than speed of light in the medium, e.m. radiation is emitted -- “Cherenkov light” or Cherenkov radiation, which can be detected;
      • amount of light and angle of emission depend on particle velocity;
interaction of particles with matter cont d
Interaction of particles with matter, cont’d
  • transition radiation (e.m. int.):
    • when a charged particle crosses the boundary between two media with different speeds of light (different “refractive index”), e.m. radiation is emitted -- “transition radiation”
    • amount of radiation grows with (energy/mass);
  • bremsstrahlung(= braking radiation) (e.m. int.):
    • when charged particle\'s velocity changes, e.m. radiation is emitted;
    • due to interaction with nuclei, particles deflected and slowed down emit bremsstrahlung;
    • effect stronger, the bigger (energy/mass)  electrons with high energy most strongly affected;
  • pair production (e.m. int.):
    • by interaction with e.m. field of nucleus, photons can convert into electron-positron pairs
  • electromagnetic shower (e.m. int.):
    • high energy electrons and photons can cause “electromagnetic shower” by successive bremsstrahlung and pair production
  • hadron production (strong int.):
    • strongly interacting particles can produce new particles by strong interaction, which in turn can produce particles,... “hadronic shower”
examples of particle detectors
Examples of particle detectors
  • photomultiplier:
    • photomultiplier tubes convert small light signal (even single photon) into detectable charge (current pulse)
    • photons liberate electrons from photocathode,
    • electrons “multiplied” in several (6 to 14) stages by ionization and acceleration in high electric field between “dynodes”, with gain  104 to 1010
    • photocathode and dynodes made from material with low ionization energy;
    • photocathodes: thin layer of semiconductor made e.g. from Sb (antimony) plus one or more alkali metals, deposited on glass or quartz;
    • dynodes: alkali or alkaline earth metal oxide deposited on metal, e.g. BeO on Cu (gives high secondary emission);
examples of particle detectors1
Examples of particle detectors
  • Spark chamber
    • gas volume with metal plates (electrodes); filled with gas (noble gas, e.g. argon)
    • charged particle in gas  ionization  electrons liberated;  string of electron - ion pairs along particle path
    • passage of particle through “trigger counters” (scintillation counters) triggers HV
    • HV between electrodes strong electric field;
    • electrons accelerated in electric field  can liberate other electrons by ionization which in turn are accelerated and ionize  “avalanche of electrons”, eventually formation of plasma between electrodes along particle path;
    • gas conductive along particle path  electric breakdown  discharge  spark
    • HV turned off to avoid discharge in whole gas volume
examples of particle detectors contd
Examples of particle detectors, contd
  • Scintillation counter:
    • energy liberated in de-excitation and capture of ionization electrons emitted as light - “scintillation light”
    • light channeled to photomultiplier in light guide (e.g. piece of lucite or optical fibers);
    • scintillating materials: certain crystals (e.g. NaI), transparent plastics with doping (fluors and wavelength shifters)
  • Geiger-Müller counter:
    • metallic tube with thin wire in center, filled with gas, HV between wall (-, “cathode”) and central wire (+,”anode”); strong electric field near wire;
    • charged particle in gas  ionization  electrons liberated;
    • electrons accelerated in electric field  liberate other electrons by ionization which in turn are accelerated and ionize  “avalanche of electrons”; avalanche becomes so big that all of gas ionized  plasma formation  discharge
    • gas is usually noble gas (e.g. argon), with some additives e.g. carbon dioxide, methane, isobutane,..) as “quenchers”;
d calorimeter
DØ Calorimeter
  • Uranium-Liquid Argon sampling calorimeter
    • Linear, hermetic, and compensating
  • No central magnetic field!
    • Rely on EM calorimeter
d upgrade1

Forward Scintillator

+ New Electronics, Trig, DAQ

Central Scintillator

New Solenoid, Tracking System

Si, SciFi,Preshowers

Forward Mini-drift

chambers

Shielding

DÆ Upgrade
d upgrade tracking
DÆ Upgrade Tracking
  • Silicon Tracker
    • Four layer barrels (double/single sided)
    • Interspersed double sided disks
    • 793,000 channels
  • Fiber Tracker
    • Eight layers sci-fi ribbon doublets (z-u-v, or z)
    • 74,000 830 mm fibers w/ VLPC readout

1.1

cryostat

  • Preshowers
  • Central
  • Scintillator strips
    • 6,000 channels
  • Forward
    • Scintillator strips
    • 16,000 channels
  • Solenoid
    • 2T superconducting

1.7

silicon tracker
Silicon Tracker

1/2 of detector

50 cm

3

8 Disks“H”

12 Disks “F”

7 barrels

1/7 of the detector (large-z disks not shown)

387k ch in 4-layer double

sided Si barrel (stereo)

405k ch in interspersed

disks (double sided stereo)

and large-z disks

silicon tracker detectors
Silicon Tracker -Detectors
  • Disks
    • “F” disks wedge (small diameter):
      • 144 double sided detectors, 12 wedges = 1disk
      • 50mm pitch, +/-15 stereo
      • 7.5cm long, from r=2.5 to 10cm, at z=6,19,32,45,50,55 cm
    • “H” disk (large diameter):
      • 384 single sided detectors
      • 50 mm pitch
      • from r=9.5-20 cm, z= 94, 126 cm
  • Barrels
    • 7 modular, 4 layer barrel segments
    • single sided:
      • layers 1 , 3 in two outermost barrels.
    • double sided:
      • layers 1, 3 have 90o stereo (mpx’d 3:1)

50 & 100mm pitch, 2.1 cm wide

      • layers 2,4 have small angle stereo (2o)

50 & 62.5mm pitch, 3.4 cm wide

12cm

two detectors

wire bonded

trigger
Trigger
  • Trigger = device making decision on whether to record an event
  • why not record all of them?
      • we want to observe “rare” events;
      • for rare events to happen sufficiently often, need high beam intensities  many collisions take place
      • e.g. in Tevatron collider, proton and antiproton bunches will encounter each other every 132ns
      • at high bunch intensities, every beam crossing gives rise to collision  about 7 million collisions per second
      • we can record about 20 to (maybe) 50 per second
  • why notpick 10 events randomly?
      • We would miss those rare events that we are really after: e.g. top production:  1 in 1010 collisions Higgs production:  1 in 1012 collisions
      •  would have to record 50 events/second for 634 years to get one Higgs event!
      • Storage needed for these events:  3  1011 Gbytes
  • Trigger has to decide fast which events not to record, without rejecting the “goodies”
luminosity and cross section
Luminosity and cross section
  • Luminosity is a measure of the beam intensity (particles per area per second) ( L~1031/cm2/s )
  • “integrated luminosity” is a measure of the amount of data collected (e.g. ~100 pb-1)
  • cross section s is measure of effective interaction area, proportional to the probability that a given process will occur.
      • 1 barn = 10-24cm2
      • 1 pb = 10-12b = 10-36cm2 = 10- 40m2
  • interaction rate:
trigger configuration

L1CAL

L1CFT

Trigger Configuration

Detector

L1 Trigger

L2 Trigger

1 kHz

7 MHz

10 kHz

L2Cal

CAL

FPS

CPS

L1PS

L2PS

Global

L2

L2CFT

CFT

L2STT

SMT

L2

Muon

L1

Muon

Muon

L1FPD

FPD

L2: Combined

objects (e, m, j)

L1: towers, tracks

d experiment
Physicists

Susan Blessing

Sharon Hagopian

Vasken Hagopian

Stephan L. Linn

Harrison B. Prosper

Horst D. Wahl

Bill Lee

Silvia Tentindo-Repond

Graduate Students

Brian Connolly

Russell Gilmartin

Attila Gonenc

Craig Group

Jose Lazoflores

Yuri Lebedev

Sinjini Sengupta

Undergraduate student:

Burnham Stokes

Research Interests

Top quarks

Supersymmetry

Leptoquarks

Higgs

Recent Work

Measurement of top quark mass

Search for leptoquarks

Search for supersymmetric top quarks

DØ Experiment
cms experiment
Physicists

S. Hagopian

V. Hagopian

K. Johnson

H.B. Prosper

H.D. Wahl

Engineers:

Maurizio Bertoldi

James Thomaston

Undergraduate student:

Lucas Naveira

Research Interests

Supersymmetry

Higgs

Recent Work

R&D of a laser-based monitoring system for the CMS calorimeter

R&D of devices to scan large scintillating tiles.

Coordination of test beam experiments at CERN

CMS Experiment
summary
Summary
  • Dzero: 2000 to 2005
    • Will remain the main focus of our research program for the next seven years.
    • We have a wonderful window of opportunity to make major contributions to our field.
  • CMS: 2005 and beyond
    • The LHC will vastly increase our ability to probe Nature. We are very confident that CMS will have a profound impact on our understanding of particle physics.
  • Hellaz: 2003 (?) and beyond
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