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Macro-climate. Radiation, wind, precipitation, Coriolis force Effects of latitude, land & water, maritime climate, topography, etc. Rainshadow effect Major biome: desert, grassland, forest, taiga, tundra. What aspect of environmental factors is relevant?.

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Macro climate l.jpg
Macro-climate

  • Radiation, wind, precipitation, Coriolis force

  • Effects of latitude, land & water, maritime climate, topography, etc.

  • Rainshadow effect

  • Major biome: desert, grassland, forest, taiga, tundra


What aspect of environmental factors is relevant l.jpg
What aspect of environmental factors is relevant?

  • Maximum, minimum, averages, or the level of variability? synergistic effect?

    Micro-climate

  • thermal profile

    Aquatic ecosystem

  • light, thermocline, salinity, etc.


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Physical resources and limiting factors

  • Range of the optimum

  • Liebig's law of minimum

  • Shelford's law of tolerance

  • Limiting factors


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Effects of abiotic factors on distribution and abundance

  • Temperature - treeline and coral bleaching

  • Water and salinity - fog belt and tidal flooding

  • Nutrient - lemming cycle


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  • Principle of allocation: trade-offs in allocating time, energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

  • Homeostasis--Maintenance of relative constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment

  • Adaptation to heat, cold, dry, wet, pressure, low oxygen supply, etc.


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Principle of heat transfer energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

Hs =Hm± Hcd± Hcv± Hr±He

  • Hs = heat storage by the organism

  • Hm = metabolic heat production (always + for a living organism)

  • Hcd, cv = conductive (and convective) heat exchange

  • Hr = radiation heat exchange

  • He = evaporate heat exchange


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Temperature regulation in plants energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

  • Desert plant – ↓ heating by conduction, ↓ rates of radiative heating, ↑rates of convective cooling

    Hs =Hcd± Hcv± Hr

  • Foliage far enough above the ground, small leaves, open growth form, reflective surface or dense hair, changing orientation of leaves and stems


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  • Arctic and alpine plant – energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands↑ rates of radiative heating, ↓ rates of convective cooling

    Hs = Hcd± Hcv± Hr

    Dark pigment, cushion growth form, hug the ground, change orientation

  • Tropical alpine plant – little annual but much daily temperature fluctuation


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  • Giant rosette growth form energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

    retain dead leaves

    dense and thick pubescence

    retaining large amount of water to store heat

    close over the apical buds at night


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  • ectotherm vs. endotherm energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

  • poikilotherm vs. homeotherm

    E = cm0.67

  • Body mass ~ metabolic rate ~ food habits ~ foraging behavior ~ home range ~ social organization

  • morphological, physiological, behavioral specialization


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  • Morphological energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

    • Bergman's rule, Allen's rule, pigmentation, fur, blubber, …

  • Behavioral

    • Basking, hiding, shivering, huddle, …

  • Physiological

    • Hypo-, hyper-thermia, countercurrent heat exchange, torpor…


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Other factors energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

  • Moisture, nutrient, light, pH, soil, etc.

  • Tolerance of pollution


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Fire energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

  • Types of fire: surface, ground, crown

  • Effect of fire

    • removal of plant cover

    • removal of litter

    • effects on minerals

    • effects on animals


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  • Effect of typhoon energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

  • Responses to climatic changes

  • Ecological indicators


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Distribution of snail and energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

ground temperature


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Herbivory and plant defenses energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

  • morphological defenses

  • chemical defenses

  • associational resistance

    • enemies hypothesis

    • resource concentration hypothesis


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Effects of herbivory energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

  • Individual, population, communities, types of animals, productivity

  • Direct effect: survival, fecundity, and growth

  • Indirect effect: changes in competition between species and microclimate


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  • At ecosystem level energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

    • Structure and plant composition

    • Redistribution of nutrient through droppings

    • erosion


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Antipredator energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

  • Individual strategies

    • Hiding

    • Making prey location more difficult, e.g. freezing, camouflage, mimicry (Batesian vs. Mullerian), removing evidence

    • Making predator hesitate

    • Making capture more difficult, e.g. vigilance, stotting, fleeing, misdirecting


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  • Cooperative defense

    • increase vigilance

    • selfish herd

    • dilution effect

    • group mobbing

    • Alarm call


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    Optimal theory energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

    • The theory used to generate hypotheses about the adaptive value of characteristics which analyzes the costs and benefits of alternative decisions in terms of their fitness payoffs

    • Behavioral strategies be analyzed in terms of cost and benefit in affecting Darwinian fitness (survival and reproduction)


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    Selecting what to eat (optimal diet) energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

    • Profitability of prey = E/h

      • When encounter prey 1, eat prey 1.

      • When encounter prey 2, eat prey 2

      • if gain from eating prey 2 > gain from rejecting prey 2 and searching for another prey 1

        E1/ h1 > E2/ h2, eat E2

        if E2 / h2 > E1/(S1 + h1) or S1> (E1h2 / E2) - h1


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    • Prediction energy, and other resources among various conflicting demands

      • Predator should be either a specialist or generalist.

      • The decision of specializing depends on S1 (or the availability of prey 1)

      • The switch should be sudden

    • Examples: bluegill sunfish, great tit, crows, oystercatchers, etc.


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