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HIP ROOFS. Created BY Michael Martin July 2004 / revised may 2007. Hip & Valley Roofs. “3 Basic Principles” All ridges must be level & parallel to wall plates All rafters must be placed at 90 ° to wall plates – regardless of the roof shape

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Hip roofs

HIP ROOFS

Created BY Michael Martin July 2004/ revised may 2007


Hip valley roofs
Hip & Valley Roofs

  • “3 Basic Principles”

  • All ridges must be level & parallel to wall plates

  • All rafters must be placed at 90° to wall plates – regardless of the roof shape

  • All hip and valleys must bisect the angle of the corner

  • Roof members are set out on centre lines

  • (Page 316 of text)


Components handout
Components - handout

  • Wall plate

  • Ridge

  • Centering rafter

  • Crown end

  • Hip

  • Common rafters

  • Creepers

  • Purlin


Set out all relates to center lines
Set out – all relates to center lines

Centring Rafters

Ridge

Hip

Crown end rafter


New members summary to complete in handout
New Members – summary to complete in handout

  • Hip – Inclined member from wall plate at external corner to end of ridge

  • Crown end rafter – special rafter running from wall plate (center span position) to end of ridge

  • Creeper rafter – rafter cut in length to join hip


Set out
Set out

  • Ceiling frame also depends on set out of rafters

  • Set out as opposite

  • Refer to handout Page 3


The ridge for a hipped roof
The Ridge for a hipped roof

  • Length = length of the building – width of building + rafter width

  • See hand out for reference, last page


Pattern rafters page 347
Pattern Rafters – page 347

  • Now include

  • Common / centering

  • Crown end rafter

  • Creeper rafters

Centre line to centre line first


Pattern rafters
Pattern Rafters

  • Remember

  • Common / centering – reduce by ½ thickness of ridge

  • Crown End – reduce by ½ thickness of common rafter / ceiling rafter

  • Creepers – are calculated on pattern – by determining long point


Determining long point of creeper
Determining long point of creeper

  • 1st mark out spacing from centre line

  • 2nd take off half mitre thickness of hip

  • 3rd add on half thickness of common rafter

  • You now have long point

  • Continue to mark out other creepers


Pattern rafter page 347 or handout
Pattern Rafter – page 347 or handout


Bevels common rafters centering rafters from p 333
Bevels – common rafters & centering rafters – from P 333

Plumb bevel

Rise

Level bevel

½ span


Bevels hips
Bevels - hips rafters –

  • Create another triangle in the roof

Plumb bevel

Level bevel

Rise

Plan length hip


Bevels hip
Bevels - hip rafters –

  • Relate to true length per metre again

  • As you do for common rafter


Bevels hip eg 30 pitch
Bevels – hip rafters – (eg) 30° pitch

  • Rise per m run – tan 30° = .577

  • Use Pythagoras to create plan length of hip

  • √1.0² + 1.0² = 1.414 (plan length of hip)

  • True length per 1.414 run

  • √1.414² + .577² = 1.527


Bevels hip1
Bevels - hip rafters –

  • You have now created that new triangle

  • You can reduce this to fit steel square

  • Take bevels from this

True length 1.527

Rise

.577

Plan length hip

1.414


Bevels
Bevels rafters –

  • You now have your first four bevels

    • Plumb bevel common rafter

    • Level bevel common rafter

    • Plumb bevel hip

    • Level bevel hip

  • In a hipped roof, there are eight (8) bevels all up


Bevels1
Bevels rafters –

  • These 8 bevels can be developed in a number of ways

  • Eventually you’ll choose which one suits you

    • Geometric (we will draw ourselves)

    • Steel square (from P339 text)

    • Direct method (from P343 in text)

    • Or combined triangles (not in text)

  • We will cover each one separately, one by one later


Main roof components
Main Roof Components rafters –

  • 1st lets concentrate on what we know

    • Common rafters

    • Centering rafters

    • Hips

    • Creepers

    • ridge


What we ve done already
What we’ve done already rafters –

  • Common rafters – set out on pattern

  • Crown end rafters – set out on pattern

  • Creepers – set out on pattern

  • Hips – we need to look at further


Hip rafters
Hip rafters rafters –

  • Before you erect hip

  • You have to take into account

  • Reductions

  • Ref: P16


Hips rafters –

  • 1st at the ridge the hip must be reduced in length

  • You can calculate it or

  • Measure it in place

  • In principle it is reduced as shown opposite

  • Hand out – shortening at “x”


Hips rafters –

  • 2nd at the birdsmouth you must reduce as well

  • Calculations of length give you position at outside of plate

  • Typically you cut corner to give better seating

  • Therefore birdsmouth must be reduced to suit

  • Handout – shortening at “y”


Hips rafters –

  • Set-out of birdsmouth on hip

  • Top of rafters, including hips, must be on the one plane

  • Set out of hip birdsmouth as opposite

  • See handout


Hipped roof
Hipped Roof rafters –

  • Now you can build the main structure of the roof

  • Edge bevels for creepers and hips we’ll show you in workshop

  • Purlins we’ll look at after we develop other bevels

  • Drawing boards next week


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