examining emotional intelligence differences among nursing students at a college in south texas

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2. Overview of the Defense. 3. Statement of the Problem. Nursing Shortage--In 12 years, 30% shortfall in nursesMany federal (like the Public Policy Action Plan), state, and local initiatives ignore the impact of emotions in the educational processes (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2001; Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2002; Rosseter, 2006).

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1: Examining Emotional Intelligence Differences Among Nursing Students at a College in South Texas A Dissertation Defense by Rebecca Olympia Millán April 3, 2008

2: 2

3: 3 Statement of the Problem Nursing Shortage--In 12 years, 30% shortfall in nurses Many federal (like the Public Policy Action Plan), state, and local initiatives ignore the impact of emotions in the educational processes (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2001; Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2002; Rosseter, 2006) Public Policy Action Plan: create a culture of retention reinforce educational infrastructure and provide incentives for students Solving the nursing shortage begins with the recruitment, development, and retention of nursing students in college.Public Policy Action Plan: create a culture of retention reinforce educational infrastructure and provide incentives for students Solving the nursing shortage begins with the recruitment, development, and retention of nursing students in college.

4: 4 Statement of the Problem Little is known about the affective abilities of nursing students in a college in South Texas. If those influencing policy initiate and implement change without ample understanding of the population, there is no assurance of effectiveness. Emotions and Nursing interaction within the environment relation to the environment and readiness for engaging in the environment (Frijda & Mesquita, 1994). Memory is coded and linked to social and emotional situations (Sylwester, 1995). Knowledge is the foundation to discover the necessary steps for change (Fullan, 2001a; Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2007). Knowledge brings about clarity and coherence (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2007)Emotions and Nursing interaction within the environment relation to the environment and readiness for engaging in the environment (Frijda & Mesquita, 1994). Memory is coded and linked to social and emotional situations (Sylwester, 1995). Knowledge is the foundation to discover the necessary steps for change (Fullan, 2001a; Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2007). Knowledge brings about clarity and coherence (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2007)

5: 5 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to seek and assess the emotional intelligence profiles of students in the Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN), Register Nurse (RN), and LVN-RN Transition Option Programs. In addition, the researcher sought to identify differences among the nursing students in a college in South Texas.

6: 6 Significance of the Study Improving the health care system is contingent on improving the education of health care professionals (Felton, 2001). The exploratory nature of this study can put forth information to close the gaps between policies and practices for the nursing students at this college as well as others with similar students. Cadman & Brewer (2001) rationalized that students will better reach their potential through emotional intelligence. Oginska-Bulik (2006) believed that intervention programs afforded individuals in human health services the opportunity to increase their emotional intelligence level and thus better cope with stress. Descriptive Nature of the Study Important for policy decisions Program managers (ie. Chairs and dean) Future teaching adjustments A study such as this will help institutions better understand the current curriculum and its implications of how well the curriculum prepares students. Increased number of students in higher education Increased numbers of non-traditional students Increased demand for skilled nurses Increased demand for accountability Cadman & Brewer (2001) rationalized that students will better reach their potential through emotional intelligence. Oginska-Bulik (2006) believed that intervention programs afforded individuals in human health services the opportunity to increase their emotional intelligence level and thus better cope with stress. Descriptive Nature of the Study Important for policy decisions Program managers (ie. Chairs and dean) Future teaching adjustments A study such as this will help institutions better understand the current curriculum and its implications of how well the curriculum prepares students. Increased number of students in higher education Increased numbers of non-traditional students Increased demand for skilled nurses Increased demand for accountability

7: 7 Research Methodology and Instrumentation A postpositive, quantitative methodology was used for this study. Within this quantitative framework, a descriptive and causal-comparative design was implemented. Surveys and questionnaires lend themselves to quantitative methodology. Assuming that the true is measurable (actually happening). Describes current conditions, investigate relationships and study cause-effect phenomenaSurveys and questionnaires lend themselves to quantitative methodology. Assuming that the true is measurable (actually happening). Describes current conditions, investigate relationships and study cause-effect phenomena

8: 8 Research Methodology and Instrumentation The Emotional Skills Assessment Process (ESAP) survey instrument, consisting of 213 Likert-type questions, was used. Emotional Intelligence skills are grouped into 5 parts (Interpersonal Skills, Leadership Skills, Self-Management Skills, Intrapersonal Skills and Possible Problem Areas) with 10 skills (assertion, comfort, empathy, decision-making, leadership, drive strength, time management, commitment ethic, self-esteem, and stress management) and 3 possible problem Areas (aggression, deference and change orientation). Answers choices range from 0 (least like or descriptive) to 2 (most like or descriptive) ESAP allows an individual a plan for improvement whereby areas are identified to develop, strength, and enhance.Answers choices range from 0 (least like or descriptive) to 2 (most like or descriptive) ESAP allows an individual a plan for improvement whereby areas are identified to develop, strength, and enhance.

9: 9 Research Methodology and Instrumentation Using paper-and-pencil versions of the ESAP, responses were collected from LVN, RN, and LVN-RN Transition Option students. All responses were then compiled, coded, and prepared for statistical analysis in SPSS.

10: 10 Population and Sample The LVN sample was composed of 181 students. The LVN-RN Transition Option sample was composed of 59 students. The RN sample was composed of 237 students.

11: 11 Data Analysis (Data Preparation) Descriptive statistics were calculated on all demographic characteristics and on each of the emotional intelligence skill. To answer the descriptive research questions, scale variables corresponding to the 10 emotional intelligence skills and to the 3 potential problem areas were computed.

12: 12 Data Analysis-LVN Respondents Demographic Characteristics (Descriptive Analysis)

13: 13 Data Analysis-RN Respondents Demographic Characteristics (Descriptive Analysis)

14: 14 Data Analysis LVN-RN Respondents Demographic Characteristics (Descriptive Analysis)

15: 15 Research Questions and Findings (Descriptive) What is the nursing student’s Emotional Intelligence profile?

16: 16 Research Questions and Findings (Descriptive) What is the LVN nursing student’s Emotional Intelligence profile? All EI skills were categorized as StrengthAll EI skills were categorized as Strength

17: 17 Research Questions and Findings (Descriptive) What is the RN nursing student’s Emotional Intelligence profile? All EI skills were categorized as strengthenAll EI skills were categorized as strengthen

18: 18 Research Questions and Findings (Descriptive) What is the LVN-RN Transition Option student’s Emotional Intelligence profile? All EI skills were categorized as strengthen.All EI skills were categorized as strengthen.

19: 19 Inferential Research Questions and Findings To determine the differences in comfort skills, both a series of one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted while controlling for and holding functions of gender, level of education, country of origin, age, and medical field experience. None of the analyses were statistically significant.

20: 20 Inferential Research Questions and Findings To determine the differences in empathy skills, both a series of one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted while controlling for and holding functions of gender, level of education, country of origin, age, and medical field experience. None of the analyses were statistically significant.

21: 21 Inferential Research Questions and Findings To determine the differences in decision making skills, both a series of one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted while controlling for and holding functions of gender, level of education, country of origin, age, and medical field experience. None of the analyses were statistically significant.

22: 22 Inferential Research Questions and Findings To determine the differences in leadership skills, both a series of one-way analyses (ANOVA) of variance and one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted while controlling for and holding functions of gender, level of education, country of origin, age, and medical field experience. None of the analyses were statistically significant.

23: 23 Inferential Research Questions and Findings To determine the differences in self esteem skills, both a series of one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted while controlling for and holding functions of gender, level of education, country of origin, age, and medical field experience. Once age was held constant, statistically significant differences were found, F(3,468) = 2.63, p = .049). The mean scores for self esteem skills for the students in the LVN program (M = 38.11), in the RN program (M = 36.04), in the LVN-RN program (M = 38.22) differed.

24: 24 Inferential Research Questions and Findings To determine the differences in stress management skills, both a series of one-way analyses of variance and one-way analyses of covariance were conducted while controlling for and holding functions of gender, level of education, country of origin, age, and medical field experience. Once age was held constant, statistically significant differences were found, F(3,468) = 2.78, p = .041). The mean scores for stress management skills for students in the LVN program (M = 35.09), in the RN program (M = 33.51), in the LVN-RN program (M = 36.68) differed.

25: 25 Inferential Research Questions and Findings To determine the differences in stress management skills, both a series of one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and were conducted while controlling for and holding functions of gender, level of education, country of origin, age, and medical field experience. Once medical field experience was held constant, statistically significant differences were found, F(3,474) = 2.74, p = .043). The mean scores for stress management skills for students in the LVN program (M = 35.04), in the RN program (M = 33.73), in the LVN-RN program (M = 36.68) differed.

26: 26 Other Significant Findings Inferential hypotheses were proposed for the Personal Leadership and Intrapersonal performance areas of the ESAP. However, as the descriptive hypotheses examined all portions of the ESAP, determining significant findings in the Interpersonal and Self Management performance areas provided a finalized examination of the EI skills of the nursing students. Therefore, a multi-variate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify any significant effects that would further the understanding of Emotional Intelligence profiles for the nursing students.

27: 27 Other Significant Findings On 9 Emotional intelligence skills, the results were not significant. However, statistically significant differences were found in time management, F(3, 477) = 1.96, p = .000). The mean scores for time management skills for students in the LVN program (M = 18.08), in the RN program (M = 15.75), and in the LVN-RN Transition Option program (M = 16.27) differed. The mean score for the LVN students was significantly higher than the RN students, but not so for the LVN-RN Transition Option students.

28: 28 Emotional Intelligence Profiles

29: 29 Conclusions Generally speaking, the Emotional Intelligence of the LVN students, RN students, and LVN-RN Transition Option students do not differ. However, time management was statistically significant with the LVN students reporting higher perceived levels of time management than the RN students and the LVN-RN Transition Option students.

30: 30 Conclusions When controlling for age, emotional intelligence of LVN, RN, and LVN-RN Transition Option students does not differ for 8 of the 10 skills. However, statistically significant differences were found in self esteem and stress management skills. This finding is in line with the results found in Meyer, Fletcher & Parker (2004) but differs with Oginska-Bulik (2005).

31: 31 Conclusions Wilkins (2004) found that students between 18 and 25 had lower scores for decision making, drive strength, time management, and commitment ethic. Whereas the findings in Wilkins’ (2004) study do not include self esteem and stress management, Knowles (1970) found that maturity and self-concept changes one’s self-directedness, suggesting that this research’s findings should be further examined.

32: 32 Conclusions When controlling for medical field experience, the emotional intelligence of LVN, RN, and LVN-RN Transition Option students do not differ for 9 of the 10 skills. However, students in the LVN-RN Transition Option scored higher on stress management skills than students in the LVN and RN programs.

33: 33 Conclusions Emotional intelligence can increase the chances for success or failure (Matthews et al., 2002). Epstein (1998) found that low constructive thinking increases the likelihood of increased levels of stress. Emotional intelligence levels have viewed as a factor in the ability to cope with stress and suffer less from extreme health outcomes (Oginska-Bulik, 2005). Understanding how emotions influence actions and how behavioral effects of emotion can serve the individual to goal attainment is important. Emotional intelligence has been viewed as a set of social-emotional skills which allow an individual to turn intellect into action and accomplishment (Elias, 2003). Occupational commitment can be a predictor of retention (Nogueras, 2006). Understanding how emotions influence actions and how behavioral effects of emotion can serve the individual to goal attainment is important. Emotional intelligence has been viewed as a set of social-emotional skills which allow an individual to turn intellect into action and accomplishment (Elias, 2003). Occupational commitment can be a predictor of retention (Nogueras, 2006).

34: 34 Recommendations With faculty from each nursing program, students, and local health care providers, innovative strategies should be developed. An arrangement of specific approaches should be created to provide assistance in the development of emotional intelligence skills.

35: 35 Recommendations During the application process, brief scenarios should be used to assess a student’s affective processes. Student responses should not be used as a means of rejecting students. Instead, the affective needs of students might be better anticipated so that specific innovations might be implemented without overload.

36: 36 Recommendations The addition of service-learning and problem-based learning as pedagogical approaches would also provide opportunities for students to enhance, strengthen, and develop emotional intelligence. These pedagogical approaches incorporate supportive supervision, mentorship, and modeling as well as the opportunity to focus on developing the self through dialogic relationships.

37: 37 Recommendations Students accepted into the programs should complete a self-assessment using the ESAP or other assessment profile before the first semester of coursework. The intent of this self-assessment is to afford students with the opportunity of creating a personal action plan. The advantage of using the ESAP is its constructive, instructive, and explorative nature.

38: 38 Recommendations During the orientation held before each cohort’s induction into the program, a portion of the session should be dedicated towards establishing the need of self-reflection and self-knowledge. Some guidance should be afforded as to the learning about self-leadership, personal mission statements, clarifying values, developing a vision, and mapping a strategic plan. In doing so, students might better clarify the end goal in mind and in times of self-doubt, mission statements, values, and vision might elicit positive self-talk.

39: 39 Recommendations RN and LVN-RN Transition Option The specification of particular core courses as prerequisites is recommended. Speech Communication-Interpersonal Communications Humanities-Introduction to Humanities or World Cultures Interpersonal Communications teaches the principles of human communication and interaction, including self-concept, self-disclosure and risk, defensiveness, perception, empathy, semantics and abstraction, language, attitudes and behavior and nonverbal communication. Introduction to humanities is an interdisciplinary, multi-perspective survey of cultural, philosophical, aesthetic, and political factors impacting the formation of values. Spanish for Spanish speakers--with the proximity to the US-Mexico border, almost forces an individual to know Spanish. But the overview of the Hispanic/Mexican-American culture makes the course important in the development of affective skills. Interpersonal Communications teaches the principles of human communication and interaction, including self-concept, self-disclosure and risk, defensiveness, perception, empathy, semantics and abstraction, language, attitudes and behavior and nonverbal communication. Introduction to humanities is an interdisciplinary, multi-perspective survey of cultural, philosophical, aesthetic, and political factors impacting the formation of values. Spanish for Spanish speakers--with the proximity to the US-Mexico border, almost forces an individual to know Spanish. But the overview of the Hispanic/Mexican-American culture makes the course important in the development of affective skills.

40: 40 Recommendations Further Research should be conducted… …using qualitative methodologies. …on the students in the Paramedic-RN Transition option program, a newly approved program. …the emotional intelligence of nursing faculty. … examining the LVNs and RNs practicing in surrounding hospitals, doctors’ offices, clinics, and home-health care should be conducted. Moustakas (1956) stressed that “[…] understanding the person from his own point of view, in light of his own unique experience, is the most real way of knowing him” (p. 4).Moustakas (1956) stressed that “[…] understanding the person from his own point of view, in light of his own unique experience, is the most real way of knowing him” (p. 4).

41: 41 Final Thoughts “The belief that all genuine education comes about through experience does not mean that all experiences are genuinely or equally educative.” -John Dewey “The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn and change.” -Carl Rogers A nurse’s kindness, patience, and understanding are often remembered, not “how dexterous they handle the hypodermic needle or take a blood test or temperature” (Smeltzer et al., 2005, p. 191).A nurse’s kindness, patience, and understanding are often remembered, not “how dexterous they handle the hypodermic needle or take a blood test or temperature” (Smeltzer et al., 2005, p. 191).

42: Thank You for your time, help and support! Questions?

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