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CDB 312-DB Bootcamp Goals: Learn the basics on the development of the model organisms used at Vanderbilt. Descriptive embryology (not experimental zoology, developmental biology, genetic manipulation, etc) Care and feeding Compare and contrast Course Management Director: David Bader

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CDB 312-DB Bootcamp

Goals: Learn the basics on the development of the model organisms used at Vanderbilt.

Descriptive embryology

(not experimental zoology, developmental biology, genetic manipulation, etc)

Care and feeding

Compare and contrast

Course Management

Director: David Bader

Student Director: Rachel Skelton

Student Director (in training): Abby Olena

Coordinator: Kim Kane

Grades

Attendance.

Asking questions/Participation.

Getting into it.

Final “Exam”


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Volvox carteri

-This is one of the first multicellular organisms seen in nature.

-Two cell types: inner gamates (around 12-16) and outer epithelium (a few thousands).

-The epithelium resembles Chlamydomonas.

-Asexual reproduction is most common.

-Sexual reproduction occurs with stress and is stimulated by one of the most bioactive compounds found in nature.

What comes with multicellularity?


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Death of the individual first appears in the life cycle.

Separation from the environment is possible.

Body compartments are formed.

Cell diversification is possible.

Multicellularity also introduces embryology.

Volvox has a peculiar event in its developmental program.


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Inversion of V. carteri is a critical step in its embryology.

With asexual reproduction, a haploid cell divides. Two cell types are generated. Epithelial cells form an embryonic sphere.

SEM on left and standard histology on right. (From D. Kirk)

Here’s the story:

Haploid embryos have gonidia on outside and epithelium with flagella on inside.

A phialopore forms and the epithelium “inverts” so that flagella are outside. Gonidia are translocated to the inside of the adult.

Even in this simplest of organisms, development is highly complex.


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Anatomical Positions

Organisms, organ systems, and organs have names for the different surfaces and positions.

In Thursday’s lab, use the right terms when you examine embryos.


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What “larger” questions in biology are best approached by Developmental Biology?

Differentiation

Morphogenesis

Growth

Reproduction

Evolution

Nature/Nurture

Repair???

how one cell gives rise to many different cell types

generation of ordered forms comprised of organized cells

regulated cell growth is essential

instructions must be passed between generations

species diversity with colinearity of mechanism and genes

how the environment influences developmental processes


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Things don’t always look as they seem. by Developmental Biology?

Embryology is a moving target in terms of??

Morphogenesis

Cell division and migration

Gene expression and cell diversification

Reaction with the environment

Bottom line: Sometimes you can’t predict what you will see.


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What is the relationship to mom during these processes? by Developmental Biology?

What are the major stages/events in embryogenesis?

Fertilization

Cleavage

Morula

Blastula

Gastrulation

Partitioning of germ layers

Organogenesis

Growth

Sexual maturation

Reproduction

Death


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Stages of early vertebrate embryogenesis by Developmental Biology?

zygote

single cell

cleavage

many cells

morula

ball of cells

blastula

hollow ball of cells

gastrula

cells move inside to fill cavity

neurula

neural plate/neural tube form

organogenesis

maturation/differentiation of organs

THE BIG POINT:

All/nearly all embryos go through these phases with

conservation of the process and variation.


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blastomeres by Developmental Biology?

micromeres

macromeres

Cleavage

holoblastic, equal divisions:

holoblastic, unequal divisions:


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mouse, human, ascidian, amphioxus by Developmental Biology?

holoblastic/equal = cleavage plane goes through cell

meiolecithal = little to no yolky cytoplasm


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mouse, human, ascidian, amphioxus by Developmental Biology?

frog

holoblastic/unequal = different size blastomeres result

mesolecithal = medium amount of yolky cytoplasm


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mouse, human, ascidian, amphioxus by Developmental Biology?

frog

meroblastic = cleavage plane only goes partly through cell

macrolecithal = large amount of yolky cytoplasm

fish

chick


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yolky cells by Developmental Biology?

meiolecithal

mesolecithal

amphioxus

frog

Blastodisc

yolk

macrolecithal

chick

Blastula: Ball of cells with a space (blastocoel)

The relationship of blastocoel and yolk/yolk-carrying cells is critical in understanding descriptive development and potential signaling pathways.


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Early mammalian development by Developmental Biology?

inner cell mass

compaction

blastocyst


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Gastrulation: by Developmental Biology?

The most simple form.


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Let’s discuss: by Developmental Biology?

1. The movement of cells to form germ layers

2. Partitioning of mesoderm.

3. The vertebrate body plan and how it explains adult function.


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How do embryos move cells around? by Developmental Biology?

How do these cells form organs?

As epithelial sheets. As single cells. Examples???

Next, compartmentalize mesoderm


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This basic structure is preserved in vertebrates, even in the adult. Compartmentalization of mesoderm is critical.

From Meier, JEEM, 1980

Note the structure of epithelia.

Let’s fold the ‘bro.


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Epithelial movements to make the gut the adult. Compartmentalization of mesoderm is critical.

Can this really explain gut structure and function?

Note the retention of epithelial orientation. Does epithelium ever move over epithelium?


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Mesodermal/endodermal relationships: retention of those relationships?

Structure varies, abruptly, throughout the alimentary canal in response to function.


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Esophagus relationships?

What comes from what?

What is exocrine? What is endocrine?


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Evolution of the basic vertebrate body plan: relationships?What’s a coelom?




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zygote relationships?

single cell

cleavage

many cells

morula

ball of cells

blastula

hollow ball of cells

gastrula

cells move inside to fill cavity

neurula

neural plate/neural tube form

organogenesis

maturation/differentiation of organs


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Rachel Skelton relationships?


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