CDB 325-DB Bootcamp Goals: Learn the basics on the development of the model organisms used at Vanderbilt. Descriptive embryology (not experimental zoology, developmental biology, genetic manipulation, etc) Care and feeding Compare and contrast Course Management Director: David Bader
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CDB 325-DB Bootcamp
Goals: Learn the basics on the development of the model organisms used at Vanderbilt.
(not experimental zoology, developmental biology, genetic manipulation, etc)
Care and feeding
Compare and contrast
Director: David Bader
Student Director: Hillary Hager
Student Director (in training): Rachel Skelton
Coordinator: Kim Kane
There will be a test.
Getting into it.
Organisms, organ systems, and organs have names for the different surfaces and positions.
Next week, use the right terms when you examine embryos.
What “larger” questions in biology are best approached by Developmental Biology?
how one cell gives rise to many different cell types
generation of ordered forms comprised of organized cells
regulated cell growth is essential
instructions must be passed between generations
species diversity with colinearity of mechanism and genes
how the environment influences developmental processes
Things don’t always look as they seem.
Embryology is a moving target in terms of??
Cell division and migration
Gene expression and cell diversification
Reaction with the environment
One question I have: When do larval forms arise in evolution?
Relationship of embryo and mother
There are differences. Any guesses?
Number of eggs/ovulation cycle
Site of fertilization
Site of embryonic development
Who is this?
Imagine discovering something so fundamental.
What discoveries could have challenged this finding?
Does ontology recapitulate phylogeny?
What are the major stages/events in embryogenesis?
Partitioning of germ layers
The 20th Century
T. Boveri & WS Sutton
chromosomal theory-complex structures that differ from one another within the same nucleus, responsible for developmental program. Interactions between nucleus and cytoplasm/ gradient hypothesis
N.Sevens and EB Wilson
sex chromosomes of insects, correlated nuclear structure (XX,XY or XO) with sexual development
X-linked mutations/genetics and development
lineage studies of Styela partita
surgical manipulation of amphibian embryos, the organizer
Wilkins, Watson, Crick (Franklin?)
DNA as the genetic material
Nusslein-Volhard and Wieshaus
Merging genetics, experimental zoology and development
What’s next? What do you like is the next great discovery?
Here are Four HomologousStructures that are Derived from a Common Evolutionary Precursor. There are two pairs of AnalogousStructures that have a Common Function
Is this right?
Conklin’s study of the Tunicate, Styela partita
These fate mapping studies were carried out by direct
observation and were facilitated because different cell types are normally pigmented in this organism (the sea squirt)
Basic Experimental Approaches to Examine Specification
Defect: observe development when one portion of embryo is destroyed (but not removed)
Isolation: remove portion of embryo and observe its development
Recombination: move one portion of the embryo to another part of the same embryo
Transplantation: same as 3. But here move to a DIFFERENT embryo
Mas?(I can think of a couple.)
What’s the experiment?
What does the outcome mean?
What is the difference between “cell fate, cell specification and cell lineage”?
Autonomous Specification in Styela
each disassociated blastomere pair forms
structures they would have become in the embryo
that are dependent upon a cell’s neighbors is seen in most
What would the outcome be if this were a mosiac system?
The Activin Gradient Mechanism
Two Experimental Demonstrations
of Activin Gradients
The more activin a cell receives the “more” mesodermal the cell fate….
The Paradox of Genetic Equivalence and Cellular Diversity
Nuclear Transplantation in Xenopus
(Briggs and King, 1952)
Dolly and Bonnie, 2000
CC amd her nuclear donor “mother” Rainbow Shin et.al. Nature (2002) 415:859
Snuppy and somatic skin cell donor “father”Snuppy’s and her Surrogate Mother
Lee et al. Nature (2005) 436:641