Welcome to CS114 Academic Strategies Unit 6 Prof Brooke. AGENDA. Tonight we will cover: Announcements Reminders Critical Thinking Internet Research Getting started with assignment Please ask questions at any time just raise your hand //. Announcements. Congrats
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Deductive and inductive reasoning
Deductive = generalization leads to specific information (finding the effect)
Examples: 1) It has been proven that magnetic opposites attract, and so these magnets in my
hands will stick together when I find the opposite polarities. 2) The law of gravity leads me
to believe that if I let go of my notebook, it will fall to the floor.
Inductive = specific information leads to generalization (finding the rule)
Examples: 1) The magnets in my hands stick together if I find the opposite polarities, which
proves that magnetic opposites attract. 2) I let go of my notebook and it fell to the floor,
which proves the law of gravity.
A fallacy is a statement made typically based on erroneous or potentially deceptive information.
Fallacyfiles.org defines a logical fallacy as “a mistake in reasoning.” The study and identification of fallacies goes back to Plato and Aristotle, and we look at these “arguments” to be able to identify inaccuracies in others’ statements while reading or researching.
Appeal to Authority – the person is not an expert.
“I’m not a doctor but I play one on TV” (1980s ad).
Appeal to Emotion – the manipulation of one’s emotions; appeals to fear, flattery, and pity are specific appeals to emotion.
“My grandmother is in the hospital and is really sick, but I worked on my paper while
waiting in the hospital, and I think I deserve an A.”
Appeal to Fear – creating fear or dread.
“My grandmother is the dean and she’ll want to see that I earned an A.”
Appeal to Flattery – using a compliment to distract the listener.
“What a great looking tie, Professor! By the way, did you grade my paper yet?”
Appeal to Novelty – because it’s new, it must be better.
“New and improved” - packaging and advertising for many, many products.
Appeal to Pity – playing upon the sympathies of the listener.
“I’m so sorry I didn’t do the project, Professor. I’ve had such a bad week, dealing
with my sister’s seven kids, the garage door broke, my husband just lost his job ...”
Red Herring – distracting the listener with irrelevant information. In fox hunting, a dried
red herring is sometimes dragged along the trail in order to throw the hounds off of the
fox’s scent; the process prolongs the chase and helps train the dogs to follow the less
pungent scent. This is a general category of fallacies, within which you may find other,
more specific kinds such as Bandwagon.
“You say we should write down our professional goals, but what about people who
don’t like to write?”
Slippery Slope (also known as the Camel’s Nose) – one thing leads to another, which leads
to another, and so on, leading the reader away from the original event or thought.
“If You Give a Mouse a Cookie” is a kids’ book that illustrates this: If you give the
mouse a cookie, he’ll want milk. If you give him milk, he’ll want this. If you give him
this, he’ll want that, and so forth. You’ve completely drawn the reader away from
the original premise, that the mouse wants a cookie. (Note: this particular story is
circular and brings us back to the cookie, so it is not a perfect slippery slope.)
The Scientific Method
1. Observation and description of phenomena, including quantifying data
2. Theorizing (forming a hypothesis or hypotheses) to explain the observations
3. Predicting outcomes by deductive reasoning, including quantitative predictions
4. Testing predictions through sampling the range of possibilities, eliminating alternatives, and coming to a conclusion with a) identification of causes, b) correlation with observed data, and c) in a logical time-order relationship
Search engines are sites that produce computer-generated list of websites. They start with a“spider” (also called a bot or crawler) that searches the web. A web page index is created from the results of the spider’s search. A search box then provides a place for the human user to type keywords and search the entries within the index. Search engines contain a large number of sites and can be effectively used for research.
Meta-search engines compile lists by looking for results from other search engines. The results, however, are not as extensive as using a regular search engine. Example: using the keyword “technology” on June 10, 2008 netted only 88 results at meta-searcher dogpile compared to 1,240,000,000 at Google. Using a regular search engine, narrowed by certain techniques, can net better results for someone doing academic research.
♦ Find and evaluate the home page by eliminating all parts of the address that follow the
♦ Associations and societies with statistics can be useful, but accuracy must still be
determined, as there may be a hidden agenda behind the presentation of these
♦ Avoid sites that promote an opinion, use overly conversational writing, have an
“attitude,” or include the slightest bit of profanity, as the seriousness of intent and
scholarship cannot be determined.
♦ Do not use message boards, blogs, or chat rooms as academic sources, since they are
considered casual conversation.
Q: Two women play five games of checkers. Each wins the same number of games,
but there are no ties. How can this be?
A: The women are not playing against each other.
Q: If you have only one match and you walked into a room where there was an oil
burner, a kerosene lamp, and a wood burning stove, what would you light first?
A: The match must be lit before any of the other items could be lit.
Q: How far can a dog run into the woods?
A: Only halfway through the woods, because after that, he is running out of the woods.
Q: A farmer has 17 trees, and all but 9 die. How many are left?
A: There are 9 that did not die, so 9 are left.