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IGCC. Reliance Industries Limited. Clean Coal Technology Conference 10 th November,2009 - PDPU, Gandhinagar. By. Parthasarathi Deb. Contents. IGCC Salient features. History of Gasification: Global & Indian. Types of Gasifiers. Reliance Strategy for Petcoke Utilisation.

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IGCC

Reliance

Industries Limited

Clean Coal Technology Conference

10th November,2009 - PDPU, Gandhinagar

By

Parthasarathi Deb


Contents
Contents

IGCC Salient features

History of Gasification: Global & Indian

Types of Gasifiers

Reliance Strategy for Petcoke Utilisation

Project formulation for Petcoke Gasification

Process of Evaluation

Emerging Technologies


Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle (IGCC)

Gasification

Island

Air Separation Unit (ASU)

Power Island

IGCC: Integration among the various Islands of Technology.


Block Flow Diagram of IGCC & Integration options

GASIFICATION ISLAND

Slag

Coal

Heat

Recovery

Sulphur

Coal Preparation

Gasification

Gas

Cleaning

Fly Ash

N2

O2

Waste N2

Clean Gas

Air

Air

Separation Unit (ASU)

Gas

Turbine

Air

Water

Air

Heat Recovery Steam generator (HSRG)

Feed water

Steam

Water / Steam integration

Air side ASU-CC integration

Steam Turbine

N2 side ASU-CC integration

COMBINED CYCLE


Existing Coal-based IGCCs

Tampa (Florida)


Existing Coal-based IGCCs

Buggenum (Netherlands)


Existing Coal-based IGCCs

Wabash (Indiana)


Existing Coal-based IGCCs

Puertollano (Spain)




Features of IGCC Technology

Environment:

1. SOx , NOx and Particles:

SOx , NOx and particulate emissions are comparable to or less

than those obtained in a combined cycle using Natural Gas

(NGCC).

2. Greenhouse effect gas CO2 :

CO2 emission is reduced by 20% in IGCC over conventional

boiler base power plant.

CO in syngas can be converted to CO2 and production of Hydrogen can

be increased. Thus CO2 can be captured directly using regular

commercial process at a higher pressure than extracting it from combustion gases

from conventional PC plant or NGCC plant.

3. Water consumption:

Specific consumption of water for the operation of IGCC plant is approx. half that of

conventional plant using gas cleaning system.


Features of IGCC Technology

Environment:

4. Other contaminants : Chlorine , Mercury, Heavy metals:

In IGCC operation,

Chlorine compounds are extracted from Gas by washing with water.

Heavy metals are almost entirely captured in the slag which is a vitrified, non

leachable, inert solid.

Mercury can be removed by absorption on a bed of active carbon for IGCC at a cost

of 1/12 that of PC power plant.

5. Solid by products:

Sulphur is recovered in a pure elemental state or as sulphuric acid.

Solid waste (slag) can be disposed as by products for manufacturing of ceramic

material, fiber glass, filling roads, manufacturing of cements, roof tiles or bricks.


Features of IGCC Technology

Fuel-multiple choice:

IGCC / POX :

1. Fossil Fuel:-

Natural gas

Petroleum coal

2. Alternative fuels:-

Petroleum coke

Biomass and waste products

The security of supply of fuel, stability in prices of fuel and multiplicity in choice of fuel, IGCC

Technology has clear cut edge over other technology / process for power generation.


Features of IGCC Technology

Global Situation:


Features of IGCC Technology

Global Situation:


Features of IGCC Technology

Investment Cost:

$/kw

1,500

1000

500

0

1997

2015

2000

2010

Forecast development evolution IGCC power plants costs ($/kw)


Features of IGCC Technology

Cost Comparison among IGCC, PC and NGCC Power plant:


Features of IGCC Technology

Cost Comparison among IGCC, PC and NGCC Power plant:

Coal price = 1.38 €/MMBtu

Gas price = 3.74 €/MMBtu



History of gasification
History of Gasification

  • PERIODTECHNOLOGY

  • Before 1700 Major fuels were Wood and Charcoal

  • 1700-1750 Industrial revolution – Coal as fuel

  • 1800-1900 Coal Pyrolysis – Town gas supply

  • Water gas, Producer Gas

  • 1920 Cryogenic air separation – Oxygen replaces air

  • 1926 Winkler Fluidized Bed Gasifier

  • 1931 Lurgi Moving Bed Gasifier

  • Koppers-Totzek Entrained Flow Gasifier

  • 1950s Texaco and Shell develop Oil Gasification


History of gasification1
History of Gasification

PERIODTECHNOLOGY

1970s Oil crisis

1973 Texaco develops Slurry Process for Coal Gasification

1974 Shell and Koppers-Totzek Pressure Gasification JV

1981 High Temperature Winkler Gasification

1984 Lurgi Slagging Gasifier (together with British Gas)

1999 Shell/Krupp-Uhde develops Pressurised Entrained

Flow (PRENFLO) Gasifier

Beyond 2000 Shell Gasification, GE Quench/PHR/FHR, Siemens, Chinese, GPE, Plasma, Headwaters


Gasification indian context
Gasification – Indian Context

PERIODTECHNOLOGYFEEDLOCATION

1940s Wood Gasification Wood FACT - Cochin

1945-1950 Lurgi Fixed Bed Coal Sindri

1960s Winkler Fluidized Bed Lignite Neyveli

1960s Texaco Naphtha FACT - Cochin

1970s Krupp-Koppers Coal Ramagundam

Entrained Bed Atm. Talcher

1970s Shell Fuel oil Sindri

1980s Shell Fuel oil NFL - Bhatinda, Panipat, Nangal

1980s Texaco Fuel oil GNFC - Bharuch



What is gasification
What Is Gasification?

  • Conversion of any carbonaceous fuel to a gaseous product with a useable heating value.

  • The feed for Gasification can be

    • Gas (e.g., Natural gas)

    • Liquid (e.g., Light or Heavy oils)

    • Solid (e.g., Petroleum Coke, Coal, Lignite or Biomass).



Types of gasifiers
Types of Gasifiers

1) Moving/Fixed bed e.g., Lurgi

Counter-current

Co-current

2) Fluidized bed e.g., Winkler/KBR/U-GAS

3) Entrained flow

Dry pulverized solid fuel e.g., Shell/Prenflo/Siemens

Fuel slurry e.g., GE/Conoco-Philips

Atomized liquid fuel e.g., GE/Shell



Temperature profile of gasifiers
Temperature Profile of Gasifiers

MOVING BED GASIFIER(400-1100 0 C, 10 to 100 bar)

FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIER(800 – 10500C, 10 to 25 bar)

ENTRAINED FLOW GASIFIER(1200-16000C, 25 to 80 bar)





Background Story of Petcoke Usage

  • First Refinery at Jamnagar started up in Q4’99. Petcoke production ~ 8500 TPD

  • During project engineering phase several options for petcoke usage were discussed:

    • Thermal power plant – CFBC Boiler + STG

    • Petcoke gasification to generate H2 for refinery. Back up of coal feed during start up

    • Storage of petcoke during intervening period between start up of refinery and proposed units above

    • Focused effort for marketing of petcoke – National + International Customers

  • Marketing efforts were so successful, that we didn’t pursue any of the other options.


Future petcoke scenario
Future Petcoke Scenario

  • Second Refinery at Jamnagar start up on Q4’08

  • Expected petcoke production: ~9000 TPD

  • Total Reliance petcoke generation: ~6.5 MMTPA

  • Expected additional generation of petcoke in India by 2012: ~10 MMTPA

  • This far exceeds captive demand of ~4 MMTPA

  • Surplus petcoke is available

  • Reliance considers petcoke gasification as opportunity for value addition


Key Drivers for Petcoke Gasification

  • Transform “Jamnagar” into “bottomless” refinery

  • Exploit price delta between natural gas and petcoke

  • Replace natural gas with syngas, to manage the supply risk

  • Insulate the Jamnagar refinery from future energy cost escalation

  • Pursue reduction in GHG through possible CO2 capture and sequestration



Project Scope

  • PETCOKE QTY - 17500 TPD (Dry Basis)

    19000 TPD (As recd. Basis)

  • OXYGEN-18,000 TPD

  • SYN. GAS PRODUCTION - 40,000 TPD

    2/3rd FOR POWER

    1/3rd FOR HYDROGEN/

    CHEMICALS

  • POWER GENERATION - 1140 MW

  • HYDROGEN GENERATION - 900 TPD


Typical Fuel Composition

* For reference of comparison only




Why entrained flow gasifier
Why Entrained Flow Gasifier?

  • Ability to handle variety of solid fuels

  • High throughput because of high reaction rates/temperature

  • Opportunity for heat recovery

  • High carbon conversion

  • Syngas free of oils and tars

  • Low methane production



GE Quench Gasifier – Slurry Feed

14500C

10000C

5500C

2800C

3000C

1

  • Steel Pressure Shell

  • Insulation Layer

  • Castable Layer

  • Hot-face Refractory

2

3

4


Shell membrane walled gasifier

13000C

8000C

5000C

500C

2000C

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Shell Membrane Walled Gasifier

16500C

Syngas Cooler

  • Flowing Slag Layer

  • Solid Slag Layer

  • High Alumina Refractory Material

  • Metallic Studs (Incolloy)

  • Membrane Tube Wall

  • Free Space

  • Refractory Lining on Pressure Vessel

  • Pressure Vessel


Process Flow

STG

HRSG

Flue gases

Power

N2

Power

GT

Air

Steam

ASU

SRU

O2

H2S

Sulphur

Air

Gasifier

Gas

Cleaning &

Cooling

AGR

Grinding

Steam

CO2

Capture

Feed

Coke

Slag + Fine Ash

To SRU

AGR

CO2

Sour

Shift

AGR

H2S

Sweet

Shift

PSA

Hydrogen



Retrofitting of existing assets

Retrofittings of GT (Frame 6 & Frame 9) for Syngas firing:

  • Piping:

    • Syngas

    • N2 Purge

    • N2 / steam

  • Controls

    • MK 6

    • Software

    • Instrumentation (valves / flow meter)

  • Combustion

    • Fuel Nozzle

    • Liners

  • Syngas Skid

    • Syngas injection

    • Air Extraction (Optional)

    • N2 injection ( Optional)

  • Compartment modification

    • Off base enclosure

    • CFD modeling

    • Hazardous gas detection system


Gasification: Ultimate Product Flexibility

Power & Steam

Carbon Source

Iron Reduction

Fuel/Town Gas

Gasification

Naptha

Fischer-

Tropsch

Liquids

Ammonia

& Urea

Waxes

Synthesis Gas

H2

Diesel/Jet/Gas Fuels

Methanol

Dimethyl Ether

Synthetic Natural Gas

Ethylene

&

Propylene

Methyl Acetate

Acetic Acid

Acetate

Esters

Ketene

VAM

Oxo Chemicals

Diketene &

Derivatives

Polyolefins

Acetic Anhydride

PVA



Process of evaluation
Process of Evaluation

  • Proposal from process licensors

  • Series of discussions with process licensors

  • Visit to plants of GE & Shell and discussion with plant operators:

    • LocationFeedstock

      GE

    • Coffeyville resources, USA Petcoke

    • Polk Power Plant, Tampa Coal + Petcoke

    • Eastman Chemical Company, Kingsport Coal

    • Sarlux IGCC, Cagliari Vacuum residue

    • Wison Chemical Co, Nanjing Coal

    • Sinopec Nanjing Chemical Industries Co, Nanjing Coal

    • Shanghai Coking and Chemical Company Coal

    • GNFC, Bharuch Fuel oil

      Shell

    • Nuon Power, The Netherlands Coal+ Biomass

    • Elcogas, Puertallano, Spain Coal + Petcoke

    • Yueyang Sinopec & Shell Coal Gasification Co Ltd, China Coal


Process of evaluation contd
Process of Evaluation (contd.)

  • Information and data available in the public domain.

  • CAPEX estimation based on:

    • PFD & sized equipment list provided by the licensors

    • Pre-engineering to estimate quantities of bulk materials

  • OPEX estimation for Jamnagar location

  • Personal experience of operating oil and coal gasifiers.


Parameters for Evaluation of Performance

  • OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS / RATIOS

    • No. of Gasifiers

    • Gasifier Temperature & Pressure

    • Oxygen Purity

    • O2 / Te of coal

    • Syngas / Te of coal

    • % (CO + H2) per Te of coal

    • Steam – Water / Te of coal

    • Gas Composition

    • Calorific Value of Syngas


Parameters for Evaluation of Performance (contd.)

F-R-A-M-E (Flexibility, Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Efficiency)

  • Flexibility:

    • Feed

    • No. of burners (single vs. multiple)

    • Design margin

    • Turn down

    • Gasifier sparing

    • Gasifier downstream processing

    • Product

  • Reliability / Availability:

    • On-stream factor

    • Planned outage

    • Unplanned outage

    • Forced outage rate


Parameters for Evaluation of Performance (contd.)

F-R-A-M-E (Flexibility, Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Efficiency)

  • Maintainability:

    • Air compressor train

    • Grinding mills

    • Slurry feed pumps

    • Gasifier

      • Burners, refractory, waste heat recovery

    • AGR

      • Columns, heat exchangers, vessels, pumps etc.

    • SRU

  • Efficiency:

    • Carbon Efficiency: (Te of carbon in CO,CO2,CH4,COS)/(Te of C in feed)x100

    • Total Thermal Efficiency: (Cold gas energy + steam energy (LP/MP/HHP))/(input

      energy of coal ) x 100

    • Cold Gas Efficiency: (LHV of cold gas x Te of syngas)/(LHV of coal x Te of coal) x 100

    • Useful Gas Efficiency:(Ton of CO+H2 produced)/(Ton of C+H2+O2 in feed) x 100


Environmental Performance

  • SOx control

    • H2S & COS removal – mature technologies available.

    • Captured “acid gas” to solid sulfur or sulfuric acid

    • >99% removal

  • NOx control

    • Minimize “fuel nitrogen”: NH3 washes out of syngas with water

    • Minimize “thermal NOx”: moderate flame temperature in GT with diluent injection (N2/steam)

  • PM control

    • Ash is converted to glassy slag which is inert and usable

    • Secondary removal of fine solids from syngas with barrier filters and water scrubbers


Economics
Economics

  • Raw Material

    • Solid

      • Coke, Lignite

  • ASU

    • Number of trains

    • Oxygen purity (95.0 vs 99.7%)

    • Cold box operating pressure

    • Number of compressors

    • Drive for compressors (Motor vs Turbine)

    • Oxygen supply (liquid/gas)

    • Recovery of rare gases

    • Extent of integration with GTs

  • Grinding

    • Wet vs. Dry

    • Feed slurry pumping vs. pneumatic feed


Energy Requirement vs. Oxygen Purity

Going From 95 % to 99 % Purity, increases the energy by 5 %.Going From 99 % to 99.5% Purity, increases the energy by another 5 %. Energy requirement sharply increases beyond 99 %. Source : Industrial Gas Handbook, Gas Separation & Purification, By Frank G. Kerry


Economics contd
Economics (contd.)

  • Gasifier

    • Type (Quench, FHR)

    • Pressure (low & High)

  • CO Shift

    • Sour vs. Sweet

  • Acid Gas Removal Unit

    • Chemical vs. Physical

  • Sulphur Recovery

    • Granulated sulphur vs. sulphuric acid

  • CO2 capture

    • Sequestration vs chemical

  • Product Slate

    • Power, H2, NH3, Urea, MeOH, AA, MTO, DME, GTL etc.

  • Integration

    • Gas, Air, Nitrogen & Steam


Steam

HP Steam @

42 bara 391oC

Syngas

Preheater

Syn Gas @ 400C

Fuel

Mixer

Oxygen to gasification

Syn Gas Temp

not < 2000C

Nitrogen

ASU

GT

Air

LP/MP/HP

Steam

112 MW

GT

Compressor

BFW Feed

BFW

preheater

10.2 bar

3600C

Steam Generator

8.1 bar

400C

BFW

Air

ASU Compressor

Conceptual Scheme for GT – ASU Integration




Sensitivity analysis
Sensitivity Analysis

JAMNAGAR IGCC

Feedstock: 17500 TPD petcoke

Product: Syngas

CAPEX: Approximately USD 3.0 - 3.3 billion



Emerging Technologies

  • To summarise

  • Gasification Technology offers the cleanest and most efficient way to convert low

    and / or negative value carbon based feed stock to syngas.

  • Syngas can ultimately replace natural gas for Industrial uses, electrical power

    generation and basic raw material to produce chemical and fuel oil.

  • Commercial Success of Gasification Technology will depend on the advancement

    of technologies such as :

    • Low cost oxygen production

    • Syngas cleanup and

    • Cost effective separation of Hydrogen from C2


Emerging Technologies

  • Advanced and / or Novel Gasifier Technology

  • Hydrogen Separation (from H2 and CO2 mixtures) Membrane Technology

  • Solvent Absorption / Physical Solvent Technologies

  • Sulfur Conversion and Recovery Technology

  • Non-Cryogenic Oxygen (e.g. Membrane) Production Technology

  • Multi-Component Removal Technology

  • Gasification Integration


Emerging Technologies

New Gasifier designs:

1. GE global/ Unmixed fuel processor (UOP):

  • Elimination of Air Separation Unit (ASU)

  • High Temperature Syngas Clean up

  • Higher efficiency

  • Lower cost

    2. KBR Transport Gasifier (TRIGTM):

  • Low rank, high-ash, high-moisture coal compatible

  • For power generation, air can be employed as the oxidant

  • Lower cost predicted

  • Higher availability predicted

  • Non-slagging, and refractory issues should therefore be minimal

  • Higher predicted efficiency

  • Lower emissions (due to higher efficiency)

  • Large scale up of the technology still required, by a factor of ~30

    • By 2010, this technology will be operating at the scale of E-Gas which has >20 years

  • experience already in 2007.

    • Lower temperatures and short gas residence time may lead to some methane formation,

  • which is detrimental in chemical applications.

    • Ash disposal problem if carbon conversion predictions are not met in commercial

  • apparatus.


  • Emerging Technologies

    3. Catalytic Coal Gasification – BluegasTM :

    • Elimination of oxygen plant

    • For SNG objective, little or no catalytic methanation required

    • High thermodynamic efficiency potential

    • Catalyst cost and recoverability

    • Carbon conversion and methane production yields in the gasifier

    • Cost of applying the catalyst effectively to the coal

    • Inherently must be done in a fluidized bed which have not been scaled up to larger capacities

    • of entrained gasifiers (yet)

    • Interactions of catalyst with coal ash

    • Separation costs of syngas and methane – cryogenic process

    • Excess steam requirements

    • Unsuitable for chemical synthesis processes due to CH4 reforming requirement.



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