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An Environmentally Benign. IGCC for Power generation. &. Energy Efficient Technology. By Dr. D.N. Reddy, Director

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IGCC for Power generation

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An Environmentally Benign

IGCC for Power generation

&

Energy Efficient Technology

By

Dr. D.N. Reddy, Director

Er. K. Basu, Adviser Dr. V.K. Sethi, Research AdviserCentre for Energy Technology, University College of Engineering (Autonomous) Osmania University, Hyderabad – 500 007, India.


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  • Total installed capacity over 1,00,000 MW

  • Thermal power generation has emerged as the principal source of electric power in India contributing to about 70%

  • Coal fired thermal stations are in predominance and share about 84% of the total thermal installed capacity.

  • It is prudent and economical to develop methods and process for efficient utilization of low-grade Indian coals for power generation.


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  • Gasification of coal is the cleanest way of utilization of coal, while combined cycle power generation gives the highest efficiency.

  • Integration of these two technologies in IGCC power generation offers the benefits of very low emissions and efficiencies of the order of 44-48%.

  • The comparative indices show that in case of IGCC, emission of particulate, NOx and SOx are:

    7.1%, 20% and 16%, respectively, of the corresponding emissions from PC plant.


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  • Environmental performance of IGCC thus far exceeds that of conventional and even supercritical plants.

  • Three major areas of technology that will contribute to improvements in IGCC are :

    • hot gas de-sulfurisation

    • hot gas particulate removal

    • advanced turbine systems


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  • Commercialization of IGCC needs technology demonstration at an intermediate scale of about 100 MW to address the issues such as:

    hot gas clean ups and system optimization and

    to establish reliability and performance.

  • This would also enable to design an optimum module for air blown gasification, which in multiples would constitute a commercial size plant in the range of 300-600 MW.

  • The present study addresses these issues and suggests suitable technologies for Indian Coals.


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VISION 2020

PROGRAM

Gasification using + fluidized bed, moving bed or Entrant bed Gasifiers

In-combustion Clean-up Fluidized bed combustion (CFBC, PFBC, AFBC)

Post combustion Clean-up-Desulfurization(FGC systems) Supercritical

Pre combustion Clean-up beneficiation/washing

CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

Technologies for utilization of Coal for Power Generation with minimal pollutants discharged to the atmosphere (Reduced CO2, Sox, Nox, SPM) at high conversion efficiency……….W.C.I.


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Schematic Layout of the

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle

Steam

Flue Gas to Stack

BFW

Steam

HRSG

Steam Turbine

Steam

Coal

Compressed Air

Hot Gas

Fuel gas

Gasifier

Gas Cleanup

Gas turbine

Power

Ash

Sulfur

Air


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Comparison of various Power Plants

* High efficiency coupled with low emission (SPM: 7%,

Sox:16%, Nox:21% of corresponding PC Plant)

** For Indigenous Units through systematic transfer of Technology


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Identified R&D Areas are:

  • Process optimization of selected gasification process

  • Improvement of design and reliability of plant components & Resource Optimization

  • Optimization of overall plant heat integration and layout

  • Hot gas cleanup


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COAL GASIFICATION – SELECTION OF GASIFICATION PROCESS

The fluidised bed process has many technical and environmental advantages over the moving bed process, such as,

  • The fluidised bed can use any amount of fines whereas in the moving bed only 10% of fines can be used.

  • In the fluidized bed process, hydrocarbon, liquid by-products such as tar, oil and gas-liquor are not produced and, hence, the pollution is reduced.

  • High ash coals can also be successfully gasified in the fluidised bed.


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BENEFITS EXPECTED FROM IGCC

  • India endowed with large coal reserves over 200 billion tonnes.

  • Environmental benefits due to higher efficiency of conversion and reduced SPM, SOx, NOx levels can be achieved using coal based IGCC technology.

  • Retrofit/Re-power options for gas based CCGT plants by installing only coal based gasifiers are cost effective (opportunity cost low) and are environmentally benign.

  • Adoption of IGCC technology in India has ‘Global’ as well as ‘National’ benefits.


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IGCC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN INDIA

  • Pioneering work on IGCC development in India taken up by BHEL in early eighties.

  • Major Mile Stones

    • Choice of gasification for high ash coals by BHEL

    • 6.2 MW IGCC demonstration plant established by BHEL both with moving Bed and Fluidized bed.

    • Coal characterization by BHEL & IICT for gasification application.

    • Intensive data generated by IICT on oxygen-steam gasification in their moving bed gasifier.

    • Task force CEA, CSIR, NTPC & BHEL constituted to assess technological maturity & financial requirement for a green field IGCC plant of 100 MW capacity at Dadri (NTPC).

    • BHEL, CSIR & NTPC prepared proposal for setting up of this 100 MW IGCC demonstration plant.


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  • Experience on the fluidized bed process is, very limited in the country.

  • Internationally, the experience gained so far is only for low ash coals.

  • Thus there is a need for taking up extensive R&D on IGCC Pilot Plant using high ash (40-50% Ash) Indian Coals.


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Technology-related issues in IGCC

  • Design of Advanced gasifiers (optimum gas composition, optimum scale-up etc.)

  • Hot gas cleaning (de-sulphurisation and particulate removal)

  • Advanced gas turbines (blade design to sustain ash laden gas)

  • CO2 emission abatement in IGCC Power Plants

  • Operating conditions of IGCC plants in transient stage

  • Configuration of an optimized system for IGCC


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Fuel – related issues

In a Raw Pet-Coke and refinery residue based IGCC Plant

  • System optimization, particularly the balance of plant

  • Optimized Heat balance diagrams

  • Scaling up of gasifiers to optimum size

    In a Coal/Lignite based IGCC Plant

  • Process & Plant conceptual design

  • De-sulfurization of syngas of high sulfur coal and lignite

  • Optimized Heat balance diagrams

  • Super critical Vs IGCC in Indian context

  • Application of ASME PTC-47 code for IGCC for high ash coals and lignite


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SOME IMPORTANT FINDINGS ………

  • Reactive solid sorbent de-sulfurization combined with hot gas cleaning through ash and sorbent particle removal provides for higher energy efficiency to an extent of 4-7%.

  • The current Capital cost of building an IGCC power plant is of the order of Rupees 6 crore/ MW.

  • Improvements in hot gas cleaning coupled with Cycle optimization shall bring down the cost drastically to a level of $ 1000/kW or about Rupees 4.5 crore/MW


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  • The efficiency of refinery bottom based IGCC unit will be about 2% higher than that of coal based IGCC unit.

  • Refinery based IGCC plants - Advantages

    • Co-generation of steam

    • Co-production of hydrogen gas & recovery of sulfur element

    • No use of limestone, as required for CFBC technology

    • No requirement of extra land for disposal of solid waste

  • In the long run the refinery based IGCC technology is equally attractive to coal based IGCC from economic and environmental considerations.


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SOME FINDINGS RELATED TO COMMERCIALIZATION OF TECHNOLGOY

  • At present it may be prudent to implement the project in phased manner to absorb the risk of gasifier in the total project wrap-up guarantees fig. 1

  • A Technology Transfer model for determination of velocity of Transfer of Technology (TOT) is an useful tool for TOT of a frontier technology from a developed economy to a developing economyfig. 2


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Typical results of the velocity of TOT are : -

(With year 2000 as base)

  • IGCC (oxygen blown) - Pet coke

    Normal pace----5 years

    Accelerated ----2 years

    (Fig 3)

  • IGCC (Air Blown)----Coal

    Normal pace----7 years

    Accelerated----5 years

    ( Fig 4)


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Fig. 1


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Fig. 2


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Fig. 3


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Fig. 4


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o

Super Critical PC Power Plant (15 C Amb.)

60

Super Critical PC Power Plant (Indian Condition)

o

IGCC (15 C Amb)

55

IGCC (Indian Condition)

Sub Critical PC Power Plant (Indian Condition)

50

o

1500 C

o

1300 C

o

623 C

Net Thermal Efficiency (%)

o

600 C

45

o

566 C

40

Ceramic gas

turbine

o

1184 C

o

650 C

35

o

540 C

30

1995

2000

2005

2010

1990

Year of commercial use

Fig.5 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT FORECAST

CONVENTIONAL Vs IGCC


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