Machine protection and operational aspects
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Machine Protection and Operational Aspects. what can be done before the CDR in 2010 M.Jonker ACE 2009 05 27. Outline. The issues Operational aspects Availability Machine commissioning Safety Machine protection Working group, mandate & participation

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Machine Protection and Operational Aspects.

what can be done before the CDR in 2010

M.Jonker ACE 2009 05 27


  • The issues

    • Operational aspects

      • Availability

      • Machine commissioning

      • Safety

    • Machine protection

  • Working group, mandate & participation

  • Priorities, what can and must be done before the CDR in 2010

Operational aspects

Concerns related to the operational aspects of the machine:

  • Construction staging and energy staging

  • Machine commissioning

    • Safety elements and location of beam stoppers for partial operation

    • Required beams and procedures

  • Radiation issues (Personnel: maintenance, electronics: MTBF)

  • Safety

  • Availability

    (a machine which has a low expected availability, will not be very attractive to the physics community)

CLIC Machine Protection

An extensive topic:

  • Many different accelerator component types (linacs, combiner rings, transport lines, decelerator, damping rings, main linac, beam delivery and diagnostics system, post collision lines).

  • Many different beams with different characteristics (energy intensity, brilliance)

  • Impressive beam power and energy density

CLIC Machine Protection

Main Beam

  • 2 injectors e+ e-

  • 1 Linac, 2.2 GeV, 234 m, 2 GHz

  • 2 Pre-damping rings 365 M

    NB: Synchrotron power from damping rings: 3.857 Mev turn-1 x 204 nC /1.2 ms turn-1 = 656 KW, (13 KJ pulse-1).

  • 2 Damping rings 365 M (same as PDR)

  • 2 Bunch compressors (4 GHz RF)

  • 1 Booster linac, 6.6 GeV, 561m

  • 2 Transport lines (24.2 km)

  • 2 Turn around loops

  • 2 Bunch compressors (245 m, 12 GHz RF)

  • 2 Main linacs (24.2 km 12 GHz RF from Pets)

  • 2 Beam delivery (2.75 km diagnostics, collimation, final focus)

  • 2 Post collision lines (beam dumps)

    Drive Beam

  • 2 Drive beam linac (2x326 klystrons, 139 us)

  • 2 Delay loops (2 RF kickers)

  • 2 Combiner rings 144.8 m (2 RF kickers)

  • 2 Combiner rings 434 m (2 RF kickers)

  • 2 Transport line with 24 extraction kickers

  • 2x24 Decelerator sectors, each n PETS structures and dump.

CLIC beams

Drive Beam

  • Uncombined beam 1 out of 24 pulses with reduced pulse length (~ 50 ns)

  • Full combined beam

    Main Beam

  • Reduced intensity /enlarged emmittance

  • Nominal beam

Beams and beam power

  • CLIC drive beam (2.4 GeV)bunchtrainpulsesecond

    Bunches129227 01283 506 400

    Charge [nC ]8.424 54458 907529 453 760

    Time [ns]0.083244140 3001 s

    Current [A]1001004.200.029

    Beam Energy [kJ]0.020591 41370 689

    CLIC main beambunchpulsesecond


    Charge [nC ]0.601869285

    Time [ns]0.51561 s

    Current [A] 10-6

    Beam Energy @2.8 GeV [kJ]0.00140.4522.3

    Beam Energy @9 GeV [kJ]0.00531.6983.6

    Beam Energy @1.5 TeV [kJ]0.8927813927

  • LEP (100 GeV)bunchbeamtotal


    Current [mA]600500010000

    Charge [nC ]53.4445890

    Beam Energy [KJ]5.44590

Effect of beam in matter

  • Note:in energy density in cupper for Melting : 400 J g-1, Structural yield 62 J g-1


  • LEP Beam (100GeV, 445 nC)

  • Energy Density @ shower core [J g-1] 0.641.6822112

  • Energy Density IB @ 0.1 mm2 [J g-1]778719624510

  • Energy Density IB @ 1 mm2 [J g-1]78726251

  • CLIC Main Pulse (1.5 TeV, 186 nC)

  • Energy Density @ shower core [J g-1]3.419.12122.37614.43

  • Energy Density IB @ 5.7 mm2[J g-1]5.7 1065.3 1064.6 1063.7 106

  • Energy Density EIB @ 0.001 mm2 [J g-1]32302600021

  • Energy Density EIB @ 1 mm2 [J g-1]32302621

  • CLIC Main Pulse @DR (2.8 GeV, 204 nC)

  • Energy Density @ shower core [J g-1]

  • Energy Density IB @ 14 mm2 [J g-1]2.6 1062.4 1062.0 1061.7 106

  • Energy Density EIB @ 1 mm2 [J g-1]36332923

    CLIC Drive Train (2.4 GeV, 24545 nC)

    Energy Density @ shower core [J g-1]1.343.0840187

    Energy Density IB @ 1 mm2 [J g-1]4293396434442810

    Energy Density EIB @ 1 cm2 [J g-1]43403428

Beam induced damage

  • Damage to machine structures primarily due to the large charge density.

    • Small beam size for main beam

    • High current for drive beam

  • However, total beam power makes proper disposal of the main beam more challenging.

Type of failures

  • Failures causing slow onset of losses

    • Magnet system

    • Vacuum system

    • Slow drifts (alignment, temperature, …)

  • Failures causing fast losses

    • RF breakdown

    • Kicker misfiring

    • Klystron trips

Protection against slow losses

Avoid slow losses by choosing magnet current circuits with a large time constant:

  • A power converter commit to stay within an acceptable tolerance for 2 ms after failure.

  • We have time to abort the next pulse in case of failures of a magnet power converter.

    If so, magnet failures should not be a major issue

    • But we still have to evaluate the required reliability (SIL level) for the interlock system.

      Similar: A 2 ms closure-inhibit time window for fast sector valves of the vacuum system. (Closure speed ~1 mm / ms)

Protection against fast losses- Oops, we are loosing the main beam, can we still dump it?

CLIC is essentially a continuous beam line.

  • Fast loss detection and fast dump may catch the tail of the pulse.

  • For the head of the pulse, we must rely on passive protection.

    Can the passive protection also be robust enough such that we do not need a fast dump?Many studies for collimation system already along these lines.

    Note: many processes that causes a loss of the main beam will most likely already spoil its brilliance.

    Note: there are some shortcuts to be investigated

Beam permits

Beam permits

Local MP Supervisor

Local MP Supervisor







Local abort

Local abort

Local abort

Local abort

Local abort

Local abort

Beam permits

Beam permits

Beam permits

Beam permits

Beam permits

Beam permits

Beam permits

Beam permits

Local MP Supervisor

Local MP Supervisor

Beam permits

Beam permits

Beam permits

Beam permits

Local MP Supervisor

Local MP Supervisor

Beam permits

Beam permits

Beam permits

Beam permits

Master MP Supervisor

Network for diagnostics and control

hw architecture of MP logic

  • A central MP supervisor controls 4 parallel Beam-Permit-Chains (BPC) for the two drive and two main beams.

  • Each Beam permit chain carries the beam permits for different beam types (pilot, tests, nominal).

  • A Beam-Permit-Chain contains n local nodes with user permit inputs that can inhibit the beam permit chain (in both directions).

  • In case the beam permit chain is interrupted, the local node will also provide signals that can be used by local beam and equipment abort systems.

Next pulse permit:

The next pulse is only allowed in the presence of the next pulse permit. This pulse permit is delivered if:

  • a successful pulse have been delivered previously, (confirmed by post pulse analysis of previous pulse)

  • no slow equipment failure (power converter, vacuum, trips) was detected up to 2 ms before next pulse.

    In case of absence of the next pulse permit:

    successive test beams of lower intensity, and emmittance will have to used to re-establish the readiness of the machine.

    (i.e. the permit system is also aware of the beam type)

    => Establishment of operational procedures

Working Group

  • Mandate

  • Composition

  • What can be done before the CDR in 2010


Machine protection:

  • Produce a detailed catalogue of possible equipment failures and their effect on the beam.

  • Evaluate within the present design of elements the time constants between equipment failure and the critical impact on the beam.

  • Use the above results to determine a strategy of machine protection

  • Following the above strategy specify the functionality of specific equipment needed for machine protection

  • In collaboration with the beam instrumentation experts produce a concept for beam performance monitoring of the individual beams


    Review all safety issues which could possibly affect CLIC operation

    Plant Commissioning Strategies (staged construction, staged energy)

    Elaborate and document

  • will commissioning of subsystems be possible during construction, evaluate the impact on security and shielding

  • review possible scenario for energy staging

    Operational Strategies

    Elaborate and document the operational cycle of the fully commissioned CLIC machine

    • what type of beams will be needed

      Operational Availability

      Evaluate the availability for physics for the machine taking into account:

  • Preventive maintenance on RF structures/klystrons for drive beams, Sources, Passive alignement, Calibration of BI/alignment/stabilization equipment, re-optimization of the working point of the stabilization system…Note: certain technologies used for CLIC are so much pushed to the technological limits that regularly scheduled interventions may be needed to ensure the operational state.

  • Down-times due to equipment failures (i.e. specification of the MTBF and MTTR of various equipment)

  • Others

    Contribution to CLIC cost estimate

Composition of WG:

Permanent members (7) from

  • TE/MPE(machine protection group)

  • BE/BI(Beam instrumentation)

  • BE/OP(Operation)

  • TE/BT(Beam transfer)

  • SC/RP(Radio protection)

    With help of consulting members

  • BE/AP(accelerator physics)

  • BE/RF(RF)

    External collaborations

    Reporting line: to CTC

What can be done before the CDR in 2010

First meeting of wg 2009 05 19

A detailed action plan of the Working Group will be presented to the CTC in July

Highest priority is

  • Machine Protection

  • Expected unavailability due to machine failures and recovery.

  • Estimation radiation levels for electronics in the tunnel

For CDR in 2010

  • Full inventory of failure modes (slow onsets, fast RT) with

    • estimate incidence rate

    • simulated impact on the accelerator structures and damage incurred by these faults (financial, operational).

      => Frequency x Impact = RISK

    • protection strategies must limit the incidence rate and/or damage to a level where the reduced risk is acceptable (i.e. a few percent of operational time & budget).

    • (effect of combined failure modes

  • Detailed requirements for passive machine protection

  • Evaluation of the requirements for beam observation systems to detect the onset of instabilities in drive and the main beam (i.e. beam loss, beam intensity loss, position and emittance).

  • Provide a list of test beams and establish the procedure to reach nominal CLIC operation starting from a “cold” machine, based on successive beams of increasing intensity and brilliance.

For CDR in 2010 (cont)

  • Required tolerance for all magnet circuits for safe operation with nominal beams.

  • Proof of feasibility for magnet power circuits with guaranteed tolerance for 2 ms after the onset of failure.

  • Evaluation of radiation levels for electronics in the tunnel

  • Evaluate the unavailability of the machine for nominal operation due to various interlock conditions and equipment failures.


RD effort related to Machine Protection issues

  • The two beam test stand: study the effect of RF break down on the two different beams of CLIC and to confirm simulation studies.

  • Simulation of failure modes,

  • Simulation of beam loss due to failure modes.

  • Simulations for optimal placement of beam loss monitors for diagnostics of the accelerators; or as active components in protection chains.

  • Study /test material damage in material (Copper RF structures) by dense electron beams (include indirect effects: synchrotron radiation, wakefield heating).

  • Study of activation of accelerator component caused by beam loss. A) implications for control electronics, b) implications for personnel safety (i.e. access restrictions due to hot spots).


  • Late start

  • Many items to review

  • No major complications to do the work(which does not imply that the machine protection itself is a trivial subject).

    • Lots of studies have been done alreadyto be compiled in a MP related document & make sure it is complete.

    • Use experience of ILC (failure analysis, availability analysis)

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