the immune system
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The Immune System

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The Immune System. The Skin. 1 st line of defense: physical barrier Oils & sweat destroy some pathogens Some cells burst Some cells shrivel. Mucus Membranes. Coat the openings of the body Nose, mouth, ears, eyes, genitals, anus Lined with cilia & sticky fluids to trap pathogens.

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Presentation Transcript
the skin
The Skin
  • 1st line of defense: physical barrier
  • Oils & sweat destroy some pathogens
    • Some cells burst
    • Some cells shrivel
mucus membranes
Mucus Membranes
  • Coat the openings of the body
        • Nose, mouth, ears, eyes, genitals, anus
  • Lined with cilia & sticky fluids to trap pathogens
white blood cells
White Blood Cells
  • Job: Search & destroy
  • Phagocytes: surround & engulf invaders
    • Phagocytosis
  • Lymphocytes:
    • T cells: destroy infected body cells
    • B cells: Inactivate invaders
defense proteins
Defense Proteins
  • Complimentary Proteins
    • Weaken cell membrane
    • Attract phagocytes
    • Cause microbes to stick to wall of blood vessel
defense proteins1
Defense Proteins
  • Antibodies
    • Made by B cells
    • Bind to cell membrane of pathogen
    • Prevents pathogen from binding to host cells
    • Causes pathogens to clump
        • More susceptible to phagocytes
    • Weakens the cell membrane
        • Causes them to burst
defense proteins2
Defense Proteins
  • Interferon
    • Produced by virus infected cells
    • Stimulates uninfected cells to create infection preventing enzymes
vaccination
Vaccination
  • Prevents infections (not a cure)
  • Memory cells developed without actually getting the disease
  • Vaccine
    • Contains antigens of a pathogen
    • Weakened pathogen is injected
    • Stimulates the production of memory cells
  • Speeds up immune response if you encounter the unweakened virus
pathogens
Pathogens
  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease
    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories
    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals
    • Fungi: pierce cells and absorb the nutrients
    • Protozoans: single cells protista (eukaryotes)
    • Parasites: grow and feed on a host
pathogens contd
Pathogens (contd)
  • Some carried by wind, water, direct contact, indirect contact…
  • Some carried by vectors
    • Vector: object that carries a pathogen
    • Examples:
    • Malaria – mosquitos carry the protozoan
    • Black Death – carried by flea’s of mice
    • West Nile Virus – carried by birds, but spread by mosquitos
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