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# KINS 151 Website - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

KINS 151 Website. www.hhs.csus.edu/HomePages/KHS/imamura/KINS151. Introduction. How do objects move? How do humans move?. Definitions. Force (Force = mass x acceleration) Types of Force External forces : weight force or gravitational force (w = mg) and others

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### KINS 151 Website

www.hhs.csus.edu/HomePages/KHS/imamura/KINS151

• How do objects move?

• How do humans move?

• Force (Force = mass x acceleration)

• Types of Force

• External forces: weight force or gravitational force (w = mg) and others

• Internal forces: muscle force/contraction (concentric, eccentric, isometric or static)

### Anatomical Reference Position

• frontal plane and anteroposterior (sagittal) axis

• sagittal plane and mediolateral (frontal, lateral, coronal ) axis

• transverse plane and longitudinal (vertical) axis

• Primary movements in the sagittal plane are flexion and extension.

• Flexion: bending movement

• relative angle between adjacent segments decreases

• Extension: straightening movement

• relative angle between adjacent segments increases and the joint returns to the anatomical position

• joint could be “flexed” while it is extending

• Hyperflexion extension (joint position) occurs when the flexion movement goes beyond 180° of flexion or more than half a circle

• Occurs at the shoulder joint as the arm rotates above the side of the head

• Hyperextension (joint position): extension movement that goes beyond the anatomical position

• can take place in the trunk, shoulders, hips, and wrist joints

• Major extensionfrontal plane movements are abduction and adduction

• Abduction: movement away from the midline of the body or segment

• Adduction: movement back towards the midline of the body or segment

• Other extensionfrontal plane movements include lateral flexion, elevation and depression, upward and downward rotation:

• Sideways movements of the head and trunk, designated as right and left (from the perspective of the subject) lateral flexion

• Scapular elevation and depression: scapulae raised and lowered in a shrugging motion

• Scapular upward and downward rotation, inferior angle moves away from midline (upward) inferior angle moves towards the midline

• Rotations of the hands and feet in the extensionfrontal plane include:

• Radial deviation: movement of the hand toward the thumb

• Ulnar deviation: movement of the hand toward the little finger

• Inversion: medial border of the foot lifts

• Eversion: lateral aspect of the foot lifts

• These terms should not be confused with pronation and supination, which are combinations of movements at the ankle (subtalar) joint

• Pronation is a combination of eversion, abduction, and dorsiflexion

• Supination is a combination of inversion, adduction, and plantar flexion

Frontal Plane / Anteroposterior Axis supination, which are combinations of movements at the ankle (subtalar) joint

• Body movements in the supination, which are combinations of movements at the ankle (subtalar) jointtransverse plane are rotational movements about a longitudinal axis

• Left and right rotation could occur in the trunk or head segment

• Other segment rotations can be internal or external rotations

• Specific terms are used for rotations of the forearm supination, which are combinations of movements at the ankle (subtalar) joint

• Supination: palms rotate outward to face forward as in the anatomical starting position

• Pronation: palms are moved to face backwards

• When the shoulder or hip is flexed to a 90 supination, which are combinations of movements at the ankle (subtalar) joint° position, movement in the transverse plane from an anterior to a lateral position is horizontal abduction

• Horizontal adduction: movement in the transverse plane from a lateral to an anterior position

Transverse Plane / Longitudinal Axis supination, which are combinations of movements at the ankle (subtalar) joint

Movement Analysis supination, which are combinations of movements at the ankle (subtalar) joint

• Most (if not all) activities can be analyzed by breaking them down into three general phases:

1) preparation ↔ deceleration ↔ eccentric

2) acceleration ↔ acceleration ↔ concentric

3) follow-through ↔ deceleration ↔ eccentric

• The more complex an activity is the more phases it tends to have.

ex. baseball pitch, walking