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KINS 151 Website. Introduction. How do objects move? How do humans move?. Definitions. Force (Force = mass x acceleration) Types of Force External forces : weight force or gravitational force (w = mg) and others

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KINS 151 Website

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KINS 151 Website


  • How do objects move?

  • How do humans move?


  • Force (Force = mass x acceleration)

  • Types of Force

    • External forces: weight force or gravitational force (w = mg) and others

    • Internal forces: muscle force/contraction (concentric, eccentric, isometric or static)

Anatomical Reference Position

Planes of Motion / Axis of Rotation

  • frontal plane and anteroposterior (sagittal) axis

  • sagittal plane and mediolateral (frontal, lateral, coronal ) axis

  • transverse plane and longitudinal (vertical) axis

Basic Movements

  • Primary movements in the sagittal plane are flexion and extension.

  • Flexion: bending movement

    • relative angle between adjacent segments decreases

  • Extension: straightening movement

    • relative angle between adjacent segments increases and the joint returns to the anatomical position

    • joint could be “flexed” while it is extending

  • At the ankle, there are special names for flexion and extension

  • Dorsiflexion: movement of the foot upward (toward the leg), decreasing the ankle angle

  • Plantar flexion: movement of the foot downward (away from the leg), increasing the ankle angle

  • Hyperflexion (joint position) occurs when the flexion movement goes beyond 180° of flexion or more than half a circle

    • Occurs at the shoulder joint as the arm rotates above the side of the head

  • Hyperextension (joint position): extension movement that goes beyond the anatomical position

    • can take place in the trunk, shoulders, hips, and wrist joints

Sagittal Plane / Mediolateral Axis

  • Major frontal plane movements are abduction and adduction

  • Abduction: movement away from the midline of the body or segment

  • Adduction: movement back towards the midline of the body or segment

  • Other frontal plane movements include lateral flexion, elevation and depression, upward and downward rotation:

    • Sideways movements of the head and trunk, designated as right and left (from the perspective of the subject) lateral flexion

    • Scapular elevation and depression: scapulae raised and lowered in a shrugging motion

    • Scapular upward and downward rotation, inferior angle moves away from midline (upward) inferior angle moves towards the midline

  • Rotations of the hands and feet in the frontal plane include:

    • Radial deviation: movement of the hand toward the thumb

    • Ulnar deviation: movement of the hand toward the little finger

    • Inversion: medial border of the foot lifts

    • Eversion: lateral aspect of the foot lifts

  • These terms should not be confused with pronation and supination, which are combinations of movements at the ankle (subtalar) joint

    • Pronation is a combination of eversion, abduction, and dorsiflexion

    • Supination is a combination of inversion, adduction, and plantar flexion

Frontal Plane / Anteroposterior Axis

  • Body movements in the transverse plane are rotational movements about a longitudinal axis

    • Left and right rotation could occur in the trunk or head segment

    • Other segment rotations can be internal or external rotations

  • Specific terms are used for rotations of the forearm

    • Supination: palms rotate outward to face forward as in the anatomical starting position

    • Pronation: palms are moved to face backwards

  • When the shoulder or hip is flexed to a 90° position, movement in the transverse plane from an anterior to a lateral position is horizontal abduction

    • Horizontal adduction: movement in the transverse plane from a lateral to an anterior position

Transverse Plane / Longitudinal Axis

Movement Analysis

  • Most (if not all) activities can be analyzed by breaking them down into three general phases:

    1) preparation ↔ deceleration ↔ eccentric

    2) acceleration ↔ acceleration ↔ concentric

    3) follow-through ↔ deceleration ↔ eccentric

  • The more complex an activity is the more phases it tends to have.

    ex. baseball pitch, walking

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