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Webinar on Graduate Project for Biopharma Students. whether you are just starting out in the program, or already writing your paper, this webinar is for you! please attend: march 5 th 7pm http://tinyurl.com/shrpbphe6200-p http://tinyurl.com/shrpbphe6200m session will be recorded.

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Webinar on Graduate Projectfor Biopharma Students

whether you are just starting out in the program, or already writing your paper, this webinar is for you!

please attend: march 5th 7pm

http://tinyurl.com/shrpbphe6200-p

http://tinyurl.com/shrpbphe6200m

session will be recorded


Preparing a Graduate Project

in the

UMDNJ MS CTS Program

James L Parmentier, PhD.

Associate Professor

Biopharma Educational Initiative


IDST6980 - Aspects to Consider

  • Administrative

  • Research Design

  • Literature Research

  • Technical Writing

  • Oral Presentation

  • Administrative


Grad Project/Fieldwork Initiation Form

Go to the Biopharma website > then to General Information >

http://shrp.umdnj.edu/dept/biopharma/documents/GraduateProjectFieldworkInitiationForm.pdf

Fill out the Graduate Project Fieldwork Initiation Form >

Think about what you can do and/or want to do:

Type of Experience? Contacts? Ability to Travel? Availability?

Fax or email it to your Advisor


IDST6980 - Aspects to Consider

  • Research Design

  • Literature Research

  • Technical Writing

  • Oral Presentation


IDST6980 - Aspects to Consider

  • Research Design

  • Literature Research

  • Technical Writing


Research Design –It’s all about asking a good question


Research Design – It’s all about asking a good question

So, what makes a good research question?


The foundation of a good research question has always been some frustrated

person saying…


The foundation of a good research question has always been some frustrated

person saying…

There has to be a better way to do this!”


“There has to be a better way to do this!”“this” is an action, a problem or a thing.


“There has to be a better way to do this!”“better way” is a comparison statement.


“There has to be a better way to do this!”“has” (bolded) means it is important


“There has to be a better way to do this!”


“There has to be a better way to do this!”


Research Design –It’s all about asking a good question

  • The question must be answerable.

  • 2) The question must be relevant.

  • 3) The question must be feasible.


NIH Clinical Research Questions

  • Diagnosis

  • Etiology

  • Therapy

  • Prognosis


Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine

  • Frequency

  • Diagnosis

  • Prognosis

  • Therapy

  • Benefits and Harms


Among perimenopausal women, what is the effect of using hormone replacement therapy with drug X (versus no treatment) to reduce the incidence of hot flashes?

simple


Among perimenopausal women, what is the effect of using hormone replacement therapy with drug X (versus no treatment) to reduce the incidence of hot flashes?

Among school age children, how effective are specialized school-based physical activity programs (compared to standard programs) in bringing about weight loss?

complex

simple


The process is to use PICO questions

P: Patient or population?

I: Intervention (or exposure or diagnostic test)?

C: Comparison: What is the main alternative

compared with the focus situation?

O: Outcomes: What is measured, improved,

affected or accomplished?


PIC0

What is the effectiveness among healthy peri-menopausal women in the USof using drug Xcompared to using no treatment for decreasing the incidence of hot flashes (as measured by patient self-report)?


PIC0

What is the effectiveness among healthy peri-

menopausal women in the USof using drug Xcompared to using no treatment for decreasing the incidence of hot flashes (as measured by patient self-report)?

Among US overweight children what is the effect of a multi-disciplinary weight loss intervention compared to single-mode interventions for bringing about improved weight status (as measured by BMI and percent body fat)?


List of Suggested Topics:

See the IDST6980-6989-M-Sp12: Graduate Project website


Searching the LiteratureIt’s all about finding the right information


Literature Research –It’s all about finding the right information

  • The information must be relevant.

  • 2) The information must be reliable and accessible.

  • The information must be interpretable.


Focused Medical-Scientific Literature Searching

• Aggregators: OVID-SP, Embase.com, EDSCO Host, Wiley

• Databases: Medline, Embase

• PubMed (NCBI)

• Boolean & Command-line searching (with tags)

• MEDLINE formatting and MeSH


Drug-Focused Literature Searching

February 27, 2012

https://sas.elluminate.com/site/external/jwsdetect/playback.jnlp?psid=2012-02-27.1604.M.FB161CDD6B76A23DB29DDF09989F52.vcr&sid=2009003

Carol Mitchell, MD


PubMed – www.pubmed.gov


1

Searching the UMDNJ Library

2

3

4


Linking from PubMed to UMDNJ

Click here

Read more here


Linking from PubMed to UMDNJ

Create your NCBI Account

(Play around with it a little while)

• Click on Site Preferences

• Click on Filters and Icons

• Click on LinkOut

• Clink on Libraries

• Clink on UMDNJ


Linking from UMDNJ to PubMed

This time, click on “Our Campus Libraries”


Linking to PubMed from UMDNJ

In the bar next to PubMed type in the “Name [au] AND NAME [JOURNAL]” of what you want to find.


Now hit “Find it in UMDNJ” and you will be

taken directly to the full article…


Bingo!


Time and Resources Matter

For a 4-6 month project, one person working 10-20 hours

per week might expect to

cover 15 -20 articles.

Plan on working through an iterative process of fine-

tuning your question and

your literature searches.


Technical Writing It's all about communication


Technical Writing It's all about communication


Technical Writing It's all about communication

“Whoever writes to a

stranger should observe

three points…………


Technical Writing It's all about communication

That what he proposes be practicable;

His proposition should be made in explicit terms, so as to

be easily understood;

3) What he desires should in itself be reasonable.

Hereby he will give a favorable expression of his understanding and create a desire of further acquaintance. Now it happens that you, Sir, were negligent in ALL these points.”


Technical Writing –It's all about communication!


Technical Writing –It's all about communication!

  • Know your story.

  • 2) Know your audience.

  • Write so you won't

  • be misunderstood.


Macrostructure of a Research Article

Discussion

Specific finding

to wider

implications

Introduction

General field

or

Context

Methods

Data and

Results


Macrostructure of a Research Article

Discussion

Specific finding

to wider

implications

Introduction

General field

or

Context

IMRAD

Methods

Data and

Results

LB Sollaci and MG.Pereira, The introduction, methods, results, and discussion (IMRAD) structure: a fifty-year survey, J Med Libr Assoc. 2004 July; 92(3): 364–371. PMCID: PMC442179


A Brief History of Scientific Writing

GD Lundberg, How to Write a Medical Paper to Get It Published in a Good Journal Medscape General Medicine > Departments > Webcast Video Editorials

Scientific

Journals

Peer Review

IMRAD

Lock, S: A difficult balance: Editorial peer review in medicine, nuffieldtrust.org, 1985

LB Sollaci and MG.Pereira, The introduction, methods, results, and discussion (IMRAD) structure: a fifty-year survey, J Med Libr Assoc. 2004 July; 92(3): 364–371. PMCID: PMC442179


The First Journals

http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org


The Author's Advantage


Writing an Introduction

Move 1  - Establish a territory

Move 2  - Establish a niche

Move 3  - Occupy the niche


Writing an Introduction

Move 1  - Establish a territory

▪ Point out the importance of the general subject or

▪ Make generalizations about the subject or

▪ Review items of previous research

Move 2  - Establish a niche

Move 3  -  Occupy the niche


Writing an Introduction

Move 1  - Establish a territory

Move 2  - Establish a niche

▪ Indicate a gap in the existing research database or

▪ Raise a question about existing research or

▪ Make a counter-claim or

▪ Indicate that your work is expands an accepted path of

previous research

Move 3  -  Occupy the niche


Writing an Introduction

Move 1  - Establish a territory

Move 2  - Establish a niche

Move 3  -  Occupy the niche

▪ State the research that was pursued

▪ State the principal findings

▪ Indicate the basic structure of the article


Writing a Methods Section

• Present the experimental design.

• Provide enough detail to allow readers to interpret your results.

• Give enough detail for readers to replicate your work.


Writing a Results Section

• Select the data or ideas that you wish to discuss

• Describe the rationale at the beginning of each subsection

• Make the data or ideas easy to find.

• If appropriate, present data in figures and tables.


The Content of a Discussion Section

• Summarize your findings

• Cite supporting literature

• Explain discrepancies

• Point out shortcomings of or in your work

• Identify unsettled points.

• Discuss theoretical and practical implications

• How might you test these implications?


Why the Discussion Section

Is so Hard to Write?

• It is harder to define than other sections

• It requires perspective, knowledge, and thought

• You may have begun writing it too early

• Your data may be weak or inconclusive


Writing a Conclusion

• Present an analysis of the key results

• Give a future perspective on the work

• Give recommendations, if appropriate

• In future research directions

• Mirror the scope and limitations presented

in the Introduction


Tables and Figures and

Illustrations

• To condense large amounts of information

• To present your findings

• To focus attention on certain findings

• To simplify complex findings

• To tell a story


Napoleon Invades Russia, Winter, 1812

http://cartographia.wordpress.com/2008/04/30/napoleons-invasion-of-russia


Writing the Abstract

• It is a stand alone, mini-version of your paper

• It describes the main sections of the paper.

• It states its purpose, findings and impact

• The bottom line of the Abstract should

resonate with the bottom line of the discussion.

• This is the most widely-read part of your paper

Your goal is economy of words.


References in Scholarly Papers

http://www3.pcad.edu/Library/FAQs/Neville,%20Colin.%20%22The%20Complete%20Guide%20to%20Referencing%20&%20Avoiding%20Plagiarism%22.pdf


Referencing Techniques

http://libraries.umdnj.edu/toolkits/Citing/

AMA Style for journal references from “JAMA”Journal of the American Medical Association

http://www.usciences.edu/library/help/citation-ama.asp

MLA (Modern Language Association ) MLA -- liberal arts and humanities

APA (American Psychological Association) -- social sciences


Thanks for

listening!

[email protected]

207-721-8428


Remember! Write so you won’t be misunderstood!


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