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Agricultural, Water, and Health-Related Satellite Products from NESDIS-STAR. Felix Kogan NOAA/NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and Research. October 2010. AVHRR Data for Land Use. Sensor: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR).

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Agricultural, Water, and Health-Related Satellite Products from NESDIS-STAR

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Agricultural, Water, and Health-Related Satellite Products from NESDIS-STAR

Felix Kogan

NOAA/NESDIS

Center for Satellite Applications and Research

October 2010


AVHRR Data for Land Use

Sensor: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

Satellites:NOAA-7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 17 (morn.),18, 19

Data Resolution:Spatial - 4 km (GAC), 8 & 16 km; Temporal - 7-day composite

Period:30-year(1981-2010)

Coverage:World(75 N to 55 S)

Channels:VIS (ch1), NIR (ch2), Thermal (ch4, ch5)


THEORYVegetation vs. VIS & NIRreflectance


THEORYCrops’ Reflectance (Citrus, Tomatoes, Sorghum, Cotton)

NIR reflectance depends on

WATER CONTENT

CELL STRUCTURE

VIS reflectance depends on

CHLOROPHYLL

CAROTENOID


NDVI & Reflectance

NDVI= (Ch2-Ch1)/(Ch2+Ch1)


NDVI & Smoothed NDVI

Eliminate high frequency noise

Emphasize seasonal cycle

Separate medium & low frequency variations


NDVI & Rainfall (% mean), SUDAN

115%

73%

95%

51%


NDVI & BT by Ecosystem Type Central USA


AVHRR PRODUCTS

Vegetation condition index (VCI), values 0 - 100

VCI=(NDVI-NDVImin)/(NDVImax-NDVImin)

NDVImax, and NDVImin – climatology (1981-2000 maximum and minimum NDVI for a pixel;

Temperature condition index (TCI), values 0 - 100

TCI=(BTmax-BTmin)/(BTmax-BTmin)

NDVImax, and NDVImin – climatology (1981-2000 maximum and minimum NDVI for a pixel

Vegetation Health Index (VHI), values 0 – 100

VHI=a*VCI+(1-a)*TCI

0 – indicates extreme stress

100 – indicates favorable conditions

MOISTURE

THERMAL

VEG. HEALTH


NDVI & Vegetation Health (VH)

NDVI

VH


Drought 1988, USAJune 28

Severe Moisture and Thermal Vegetation Stress


Drought 1988, Week 27, Satellite & In Situ Data


Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), USSR southeast


Wheat Density vs VCI

1991 1992

May Jun Jul Aug Sep May Jun Jul Aug Sep


Sep 30, 2010: VCI vs Soil MoistureUKRAINE

VCI

0-20 cm

Soil Moisture Anomaly


VHI and Biomass,Mongolia

1988 1989


Corn Yield vs VCIMidwest, USA

Corn Yield - normalized for Midwestern CRD

VCI – mean for CRD


VH and Crop Yield

MOROCCO -Wheat

R

U

S

S

I

A

A

R

G

E

N

T

I

N

A

MONGOLIA - Pasture

Kansas, USA


Correlation of Wheat Yield anomaly with VH Indices, Precipitation & Temperature anomalySaratov, RUSSIA

Yield

dYvsVHI,VCI&TCI

dYvsdP

dYvsdT


dY vs VCI Correlation, KANSAS

P

H

H

S

H

P

H


Modeling Agricultural Production KANSAS, USA


Vegetation Health and Agriculture, UKRAINE

2002 & 2004 – NOAA-16 satellite identify good vegetation health (green) resulted in high yield 2.75 & 2.84 t/ha

t/ha

2.7

2003 – Intensive Drought (red) caused 35% losses in grain yield (1.84 t/ha) versus the years before and after

1.8

ADDRESS:

- Ecosystem Health

- Agriculture

- Food Security

2.8

PLAN

Use NOAA/AVHRR Data 4 km resolution


2007 Drought Dynamics: Focus on Southern RUSSIA & UKRAINE from NOAA-18 Vegetation Health Index (VHI)

Beloruss

Russia

UKRAINE

Rumania

Bulgaria

Georgia

Turkey

Syria

Iraq

  • Vegetation Health (red) deteriorated from April through the end of the growing season, especially in the main areas of winter wheat

  • VHI is derived from NOAA/AVHRR data and estimates greenness, vigor and thermal conditions of vegetation


JUNE

www.rsindexbasedcropinsurance2010.com


Vegetation Condition 2010


Vegetation Health Dynamics, USADROUGHT DETECTION (DD)


DD: Drought Dynamicsfrom Vegetation Health Index

1999 2000

No

Drought

Drought


DD: 2007 Vegetation Health, Odessa obl., UKRAINE

Moisture

Healthy

DROUGHT

Thermal


Drought Area & Intensity (DAI)Severe-to-Exceptional Drought (% from the World area), 2000-2010


DAI: Estimated from AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Index

No Data


MAX

10%

20%

50%

80%

DAI: UKRAINE, All


Extreme Drought Area, 1991-2009


Vegetation stress, June, 2008

DROUHGT-red

Soil Saturation- white


Soil Saturation Index (SSI)June 8-27, 2008, Midwest, USA

June 8-14

June 15-21

June 22-27


Area (% from a state) of saturated and flooded soilMidwestern states, USA, 2008

%

MAY JUNE

MAY JUNE

1 15 31 1 15

Week


Web

http://www.orbit.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/emb/vci


Vegetation Health October 21, 2010


Vegetation HealthOctober 21


Drought & Fire RiskOctober 21, 2010

Drought Fire Risk


Percent drought area in the major corn belt of BRAZIL


Oct 21, 2010 VH Change fromOct 14, 2010 (A) & Oct 21, 2009 (B)


Drought change on Oct 21, 2010


Wheat Yield RUSSIA

Russia produces 65% WW & 35% SW

  • Figure shows dynamics of Vegetation health (VH)

  • 2007 WW analogue was 2001 VH

  • WW yield is expected at or 1-3% below LTT or 1.9 t/ha

  • Figure shows dynamics of Vegetation health (VH)

  • 2007 SW analogue was 2001 VH

  • SW yield is expected 5-7% above long-term trend (LTT)

Total wheat is expected at or slightly below LTT (1.96 t/ha)


Mean Moisture (VCI) & Thermal (TCI) conditions for the major crop growing area of BRAZIL, 2010


Vegetation Health, Soybeans area, BRAZIL


VCI & TCI DynamicsSoybeans area 2010 vs 2008, BRAZIL


PROBLEMS?


NDVI 2010 week 40

GVI-x

N18

MGVI

N19

Difference


BT4 2010 week 40

MGVI

N18

MGVI

N19

Difference


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