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NOAA NESDIS satellite products for fire risk assessment Peter Romanov 1,2 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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NOAA NESDIS satellite products for fire risk assessment Peter Romanov 1,2 1 NOAA Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (CREST), City College of City University of New York (CUNY) 2 Center for Satellite Applications and Research, NOAA/NESDIS. BACKGROUND.

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Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

NOAA NESDIS satellite products for fire risk assessment

Peter Romanov1,2

1NOAA Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (CREST),

City College of City University of New York (CUNY)

2 Center for Satellite Applications and Research, NOAA/NESDIS


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

BACKGROUND

  • NESDIS does not operationally monitor fire risk or fire danger

  • Several NESDIS environmental products can be used for assess fire potential/danger

  • Our presentation gives a review of these products, their accuracy and availability


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

FIRE DANGER/RISK INDICES

  • Indices used (partial list)

  • Keetch-Byram Drought Index, KBDI (USA, Canada)

  • Nesterov, NI (Russia)

  • Zhdanko, ZhI (Russia)

  • McArthur Forest Fire Danger Index, FFDI (Australia)

  • Primary input to indices calculation

    • Temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed

    • Duration of adverse weather conditions leading to drought/fires (cumulative dryness)

  • Additional information that may be used

    • Vegetation cover condition, soil moisture, snow cover


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

BACKGROUND


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

FIRE INDICES AND FIRE STATISTICS

From Groisman et al, 2007


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

PRECIPITATION PRODUCTS

  • Vis/IR -based

  • Microwave-based

  • Combined

All products are derived at daily or shorter time step

Coverage is continental to global


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

ACCURACY OF PRECIPITATION ESTIMATES


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

SOIL MOISTURE BASICS

Physics: Soil moisture is related to surface microwave emissivity

  • Few instruments have sufficiently low frequencies (≤10 GHz) to have the desired sensitivity:

    • AMSR-E: 6.9 and 10.7 GHz

    • TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI): 10.7 GHz

    • WindSatCoriolis: 6.8 and 10.8 GHz

    • ESA SMOS MIRAS: 1.4 GHz

  • Higher frequencies less sensitive to soil wetness, have smaller penetration depth.

  • Soil moisture retrievals over heavily vegetated areas (e.g., rain forest) are very limited


Soil moisture products and data

Soil Moisture Products and Data

  • The Soil Moisture Operational Processing System (SMOPS) is being developed at NOAA to provide operational real-time soil moisture products at 6-hour and daily time scales on a 0.25-degree lat/lon grid.

  • SMOPS will combine soil moisture retrievals from several sensors SMOS, AMSR-E, and ASCAT.

  • Operational deployment is planned for August 2011.


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

SNOW COVER

  • Daily snow cover maps are derived daily at 4 km spatial resolution

  • Two type of techniques: interactive and automated

  • Both visible infrared and microwave observations are used for snow mapping

  • Rate of agreement to surface snow cover estimates is about 90%

Global automated snow/ice maps http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/emb/snow/HTML/multisensor_global_snow_ice.html

NH Interactive snow/ice maps

http://www.natice.noaa.gov/ims/


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

SNOW SEASON VS FIRE SEASON

  • Fire season starts ~2 weeks after snow melt

  • Earlier snow melt in 1980s as compared to 1970s translated into earlier start of fire season.


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND NDVI

  • AVHRR-based

  • Smoothed

  • Weekly, global

  • 4 km resolution

  • Available since 1982

  • Used to identify drought conditions


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

DROUGHT IDENTIFICATION

  • Temperature much above average

  • NDVI much below average

  • Drought condition

  • Compare current temperature and NDVI with average historical values for the same week of the year


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

FIRE RISK

  • Duration of persistent drought conditions

  • Fire risk

  • Week 34, 2009

  • Week 34, 2010

  • Climatology-based approach for fire risk assessment is less efficient in areas where fires occur every year (e.g., Turkey)


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

VEGETATION COVER LINK

  • Climatology-based approach for fire risk assessment is less efficient in areas where fires occur every year (e.g., Turkey)

  • Only occasional qualitative validation of the fire risk products is performed

  • http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/emb/vci/VH/vh_browse.php


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

SUMMARY

  • Products are global or large scale. Therefore their application has most advantages in large-scale fire-related assessments.

  • -

  • Satellites do not provide all information needed to calculate standard fire danger indices.


Noaa nesdis satellite products for fire risk assessment peter romanov 1 2

THANK YOU


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