The Beginnings of Modernization: Industrialization and Nationalism,  1800-1870

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2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license. . Britain in the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact. The Industrial Revolution in Great BritainAgricultural growthPopulation growthAble to produce

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The Beginnings of Modernization: Industrialization and Nationalism, 1800-1870

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1. The Beginnings of Modernization: Industrialization and Nationalism, 1800-1870

2. Britain in the Industrial Revolution

3. The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Agricultural growth Population growth Able to produce goods cheaply Changes in Textile Production Flying shuttle James Hargreaves, spinning jenny, 1768 Edmund Cartwright, power loom, 1787 James Watt, rotary steam engine, 1782 Cotton textile production

4. Industrialization of Europe

5. Technological Changes Iron Industry Henry Cort, puddling Railroad Richard Trevithick, steam-powered locomotive George Stephenson, Rocket, 1830 Ripple effect Prices of goods fall; markets grow larger; increased sales mean more factories and machinery; thus, self-sustaining The Industrial Factory Workers in shifts Workers come from rural areas Regulations

6. Spread of Industrialization Spread to Europe first Government role United States Internal transportation Labor

7. Limiting the Spread of Industrialization to the Rest of the World Russia was largely rural and agricultural ruled by an autocratic regime that preferred to keep peasants in serfdom India exported cotton cloth produced by hand labor Purchase British-made goods

8. Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution Population Growth and Urbanization European population 140 million in 1750 and 266 million by 1850 Decline of death rate Increased food supply Growth of cities Poor living conditions Sanitation poor

9. Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution (cont.’d) New Social Classes: The Industrial Middle Class New bourgeois Constructed the factories, purchased the machines, figured out where the markets were Reduce the barriers between themselves and the landed elite New Social Classes: The Industrial Working Class Poor working conditions Women and children Efforts at Change Socialism Utopian socialists

10. Reaction and Revolution: The Growth of Nationalism Conservative Order Vienna peace settlement, 1815 Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) Concert of Europe Forces for Change Liberalism Protection of civil liberties Guaranteed by a document Right to vote to men of property only Nationalism Common institutions, traditions, language, and customs Each nationality should have a government Becomes a threat to the existing order

11. Centers of Revolt in 1848-49

12. The Revolutions of 1848 France Agricultural depression, 1846 Refusal to extend suffrage to the middle class King Louis-Philippe, 1830-1848, overthrown February 24, 1848 Provisional government, call for universal male suffrage Second Republic established, November 4, 1848 Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte elected president Revolution in Central Europe The German Confederation Prussian king, Frederick William IV, (1840-1861) Frankfurt Assembly: hopes and failures Revolution in Austria in March, 1848 Revolution in Italy

13. Independence and the Development of the National State in Latin America Nationalistic Revolts Enlightenment affects the creole class European control weakened by Napoleonic Wars Mexico Divisions within Mexico Augustin de Iturbide, first emperor of Mexico, 1821 South America José de San Martín (1783-1830) Simón Bolívar (1783-1830)

14. Latin America in the Early Nineteenth Century

15. Difficulties of Nation Building Problems of independence Caudillos come to power Economic dependence Domination by the industrializing nations Source of raw materials and food for industrialized nations Domination by landed elites

16. Nationalism in the Balkans: The Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Question Ottoman control of the Balkans wanes Crimean War, 1853-1855 Russians invaded Moldavia and Wallachia Ottoman Turks declare war, October, 4, 1853 Britain and France fear Russians would gain an advantage, declare war, March 28, 1854 The Crimean War Treaty of Paris, 1855 Crimean War destroyed the Concert of Europe Results of the war

17. The Balkans in 1830

18. National Unification and the National State: 1848-1871 The Unification of Italy Count Camillo di Cavour (1810-1861) Alliance with the French against Austria Peace settlement: Piedmont gets Lombardy Other northern Italian states join Piedmont Guiseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) Red shirts Capture The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Land turned over to Pienmon King Victor Emmanuel II (1861-1878) New Kingdom of Italy proclaimed, March 17, 1861

19. The Unification of Italy

20. The Unification of Germany King William I (1861-1888) Count Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) Realpolitik Schleswig and Holstein annexed after the defeat of Denmark in 1864 Austro-Prussian War, 1866 North German Confederation Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871 January 18, 1871, William I of Prussia named kaiser Made Second German Empire Affects of unification

21. Ethnic groups within the Austrian Empire

22. Nationalism and Reform: Great Britain, France, the Austrian Empire, and Russia Great Britain Reform Act of 1832 Social and political reform in 1850s and 1860s France Louis Napoleon, Napoleon III (1852-1870) Economic growth and development Reconstruction of Paris Opposition grew in 1860s Austria Problems of ethnic nationalism Ausgleich, Compromise of 1867 creates a Duel Empire Russia Tsar Alexander II (1855-1881) Reforms

23. The United States and Canada in the Nineteenth Century

24. Growth of the United States Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) Jacksonian democracy Slavery Cotton economy of the South Northern fear that slavery would spread Abraham Lincoln and secession Civil War (1861-1865) War to save the Union Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863

25. The Emergence of a Canadian Nation Upper and Lower Canada Rebellions against the government United Provinces of Canada John Macdonald British North American Act, 1867

26. Cultural Life: Romanticism Characteristics of Romanticism Interest in the past Attraction to the exotic and unfamiliar Poetry ranked above all other forms William Wordsworth (1770-1850) Believed that nature served as a mirror Artistic expression was to reflect inner feelings Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863)

27. A New Age of Science Technological advances Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) -- germ theory Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) -- periodic law Acceptance of the scientific method Charles Darwin (1809-1882) -- organic evolution; survival of the fittest

28. Realism in Literature and Art Rejected Romanticism Ordinary characters from natural life Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) Madame Bovary Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) Realistic portrayals of life The Stonebreakers

29. Discussion Questions Why did the Industrial Revolution emerge in Britain first? How did nationalism and liberalism contribute to the Revolutions of 1848? Compare and contrast the process of national unification in Italy and Germany. Describe the attitude of the Romantics toward nature and history.

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