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Air pollution. Impact of industrialization. What is air pollution?. Undesirable gases, soilids and particulates are added to the atmosphere Causing chemical modifications and climatic changes . Sources of air pollution. Thermal power stations Iron and steel making Oil refinery

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Air pollution

Impact of industrialization


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What is air pollution?

  • Undesirable gases, soilids and particulates are added to the atmosphere

  • Causing chemical modifications and climatic changes


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Sources of air pollution

  • Thermal power stations

  • Iron and steel making

  • Oil refinery

  • Mineral smelting or refining

  • Chemical industries


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Gases

  • Water vapour from industrial chimneys + high RH / light winds  condenses on dust particles and poisonous gases  smog

  • Result: respiratory diseases and lung cancer


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Carbon dioxide

  • CO2 Admit short-wave radiation but impede passage of long-wave radiation  increased the absorption of solar radiation  greenhouse effect  global warming…etc

  • From burning of fossil fuels, e.g. coal


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Carbon monoxide

  • CO = a toxic gas  coughing and breathing difficulties

  • Incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas)  CO

  • From vehicular fume associated with the transport of industrial goods


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Sulphur dioxide

  • May mix with water to form sulphuric acid  smog + acid rain

  • Also from combustion of coal or petroleum

  • May accumulate above industrial areas  air pollution disaster

  • London smog of 1952


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Nitric oxide and nitrogen oxide

  • Caused by industrial combustion in high temperature

  • Common in electricity generation plants and many complex processing industries which use very large energy conversion processes

  • Can affect visibility

  • Combines with water  nitric acid


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Dust particles

  • Produced by saw milling, furniture making, cement making, textile spinning, feature processing, mining and quarrying

  • Workers  prolonged exposure to airborne particles  pneumoconiosis

  • Smog formation + condensation


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Radioactive materials

  • Given out by power plants at times of accident

  • Highly toxic concentrations over a large area


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How serious is the air pollution problem?

Pearl River Delta

  • there is an exponential rise in nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and carbon dioxides emissions due to increase in number of motor vehicles and industries in the province.

  • Lung-cancer mortality among humans is between 17-31 cases per 100,000 inhabitants a year in the cities, compared with 4-5 for national average. (CEN, 1997)

  • In PRD, an average of 35.6 out of every 100,000 people now die of lung cancer, while the rate of death due to respiratory diseases has been a nearly 25% increase over the last 10 years.


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How serious is the air pollution problem?

Chernobyl disaster

  • In the early hours of 26 April 1986, one of four nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl power station exploded.

  • Moscow was slow to admit what had happened, even after increased radiation was detected in other countries.

  • The lack of information led to exaggerated claims of the number killed by the blast in the immediate area.

  • Contamination is still a problem, however, and disputes continue about how many will eventually die as a result of the world's worst nuclear accident.


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Chernobyl Disaster core of a reactor at Chornobyl, in Ukraine, a month after history


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How serious is the air pollution problem? core of a reactor at Chornobyl, in Ukraine, a month after history

London smog 1952

  • From December 5 to 8, 1952, London experienced the worst air pollution disaster ever reported

  • The meteorological conditions were ideal for a pollution. Fireplaces and industries supplied the hygroscopic condensation nuclei into the air to form dense fog.

  • The daily temperatures were below the average. With such adverse conditions the concentrations of pollutants reached high values.

  • With these adverse conditions, elderly people were particulary effected. Deaths from bronchitis increased by a factor of 10, influenza by 7, pneumonia by 5, tuberculosis by 4.5, other respiratory diseases by 6, heart diseases by 3 and lung cancer by 2.




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  • Dead and dying forests downwind from two power plants in what is now the Czech Republic appear as a long, dark orange scar in this false-color satellite image. Black stands indicate healthier trees. Wind carries air pollutants to distant points where they may fall as acid rain, a phenomenon that has damaged thousands of acres in Eastern Europe.


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Can we do something to stop air pollution? otherwise densely populated Bangkok. Claiming nearly seven million people

  • There's so much pollution in the air now that if it weren't for our lungs there'd be no place to put it all.

    Robert Orben


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References otherwise densely populated Bangkok. Claiming nearly seven million people

  • http://www.nationalgeographic.com/eye/ozone/ozone.html


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