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Air Pollution. Chapter 18. Core Case Study: South Asia’s Massive Brown Cloud. Asian Brown Cloud Causes Chemical composition Areas impacted Air pollution connects the world Steps taken in China and India to reduce air pollution. The Asian Brown Cloud.

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air pollution

Air Pollution

Chapter 18

core case study south asia s massive brown cloud
Core Case Study: South Asia’s Massive Brown Cloud
  • Asian Brown Cloud
    • Causes
    • Chemical composition
    • Areas impacted
  • Air pollution connects the world
  • Steps taken in China and India to reduce air pollution
18 1 what is the nature of the atmosphere
18-1 What Is the Nature of the Atmosphere?
  • Concept 18-1 The atmosphere is structured in layers, including the troposphere, which supports life, and the stratosphere, which contains the protective ozone layer.
the atmosphere consists of several layers
The Atmosphere Consists of Several Layers
  • Atmosphere varies in
    • Density
    • Atmospheric pressure
air movements in the troposphere play a key role in earth s weather and climate
Air Movements in the Troposphere Play a Key Role in Earth’s Weather and Climate
  • Troposphere
    • 75–80% of the earth’s air mass
    • Closet to the earth\'s surface
    • Chemical composition of air
    • Rising and falling air currents: weather and climate
    • Involved in chemical cycling
the stratosphere is our global sunscreen
The Stratosphere Is Our Global Sunscreen
  • Stratosphere
    • Similar composition to the troposphere, with 2 exceptions
      • Much less water
      • O3, ozone layer, filters UV
    • Location
slide9

Atmospheric pressure (millibars)

1,000

200

0

400

600

800

120

75

Temperature

110

65

Thermosphere

100

90

55

Mesopause

80

Mesosphere

45

70

Altitude (kilometers)

Altitude (miles)

60

Stratopause

35

50

Stratosphere

40

25

30

Tropopause

15

Ozone layer

20

10

Pressure

Troposphere

5

(Sea level)

0

Pressure =

1,000 millibars at ground level

–80

80

40

120

–40

0

Temperature (˚C)

Fig. 18-3, p. 470

18 2 what are the major outdoor pollution problems
18-2 What Are the Major Outdoor Pollution Problems?
  • Concept 18-2 Pollutants mix in the air to form industrial smog, mostly the result of burning coal, and photochemical smog, caused by motor vehicle, industrial, and power plant emissions.
air pollution comes from natural and human sources 1
Air Pollution Comes from Natural and Human Sources (1)
  • Air pollution
  • Natural sources
    • Dust blown by wind
    • Pollutants from wildfires and volcanoes
    • Volatile organics released by plants
    • Withdrawing groundwater
case study air pollution in the past the bad old days 1
Case Study: Air Pollution in the Past: The Bad Old Days (1)
  • Discovery of fire
  • Middle Ages
  • Industrial Revolution
  • London, England
    • 1850s
    • 1952: yellow fog
    • Clean Air Act of 1956
case study air pollution in the past the bad old days 2
Case Study: Air Pollution in the Past: The Bad Old Days (2)
  • United States
    • 1948: Donora, PA; first U.S. air pollution disaster
    • 1963: New York City
  • Global problem
some pollutants in the atmosphere combine to form other pollutants
Some Pollutants in the Atmosphere Combine to Form Other Pollutants
  • Primary pollutants
  • Secondary pollutants
  • Air quality improving in developed countries
  • Much more needs to be done in developing countries
    • Indoor pollution: big threat to the poor
slide15

Primary Pollutants

Secondary Pollutants

CO

CO2

SO2

NO

NO2

SO3

Most hydrocarbons

HNO3

H2SO4

Most suspended particles

H2O2

O3

PANs

Most NO3− and SO42− salts

Sources

Natural

Stationary

Mobile

Fig. 18-4, p. 472

what are the major outdoor air pollutants 1
What Are the Major Outdoor Air Pollutants? (1)
  • Carbon oxides
    • Carbon monoxide (CO)
    • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
    • Sources
    • Human health and environmental impact
what are the major outdoor air pollutants 2
What Are the Major Outdoor Air Pollutants? (2)
  • Nitrogen oxides (NO) and nitric acid (HNO3)
    • Sources
    • Acid deposition
    • Photochemical smog
    • Human health and environmental impact
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
    • Sources
    • Human health and environmental impact
what are the major outdoor air pollutants 3
What Are the Major Outdoor Air Pollutants? (3)
  • Particulates
    • Suspended particulate matter (SPM)
      • Fine
      • Ultrafine
    • Sources
    • Human health and environmental impact
what are the major outdoor air pollutants 4
What Are the Major Outdoor Air Pollutants? (4)
  • Ozone (O3)
    • Sources
    • Human and environmental impact
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    • Hydrocarbons and terpenes
    • Sources
    • Human and environmental impact
slide21

Stepped Art

Table 18-1, p. 473

science focus detecting air pollutants
Science Focus: Detecting Air Pollutants
  • Chemical instruments
  • Satellites
  • Nanotechnology
  • Biological indicators
    • Lichens
case study lead is a highly toxic pollutant 1
Case Study: Lead Is a Highly Toxic Pollutant (1)
  • Does not break down in the environment
  • Sources
  • Human health and environmental impact
    • Most vulnerable
case study lead is a highly toxic pollutant 2
Case Study: Lead Is a Highly Toxic Pollutant (2)
  • Reduction of lead (Pb)
    • Unleaded gasoline
    • Unleaded paint
  • Still problems
    • 2007: toys with Pb paint recalled
    • Global ban on lead in gasoline and paint
slide27

SOLUTIONS

Lead Poisoning

Prevention

Control

Replace lead pipes and plumbing fixtures containing lead solder

Phase out leaded gasoline worldwide

Phase out waste incineration

Remove leaded paint and lead dust from older houses and apartments

Ban use of lead solder

Sharply reduce lead emissions from incinerators

Ban use of lead in computer and TV monitors

Remove lead from TV sets and computer monitors before incineration or land disposal

Ban lead glazing for ceramicware used to serve food

Test for lead in existing ceramicware used to serve food

Ban candles with lead cores

Test existing candles for lead

Test blood for lead by age 1

Wash fresh fruits and vegetables

Fig. 18-7, p. 476

burning coal produces industrial smog
Burning Coal Produces Industrial Smog
  • Chemical composition of industrial smog
  • Reduction of this smog in urban cities of the United States
  • China and smog
    • Human deaths
slide29

Ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4]

Ammonia (NH3)

Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)

Carbon monoxide (CO) and

carbon dioxide (CO2)

Water vapor (H2O)

Sulfur trioxide (SO 3 )

Oxygen (O2)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

Burning coal and oil

Oxygen (O2)

Carbon (C) in coal and oil

Sulfur (S) in coal and oil

Stepped Art

Fig. 18-8, p. 476

sunlight plus cars equals photochemical smog
Sunlight Plus Cars Equals Photochemical Smog
  • Photochemical Smog
    • Chemical composition
    • Sources
  • VOCs + NO2 + Heat + Sunlight yields
    • Ground level O3 and other photochemical oxidants
    • Aldehydes
    • Other secondary pollutants
  • Human health and environmental impact
slide31

PANS and other pollutants

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

Ozone (O3)

Oxygen (O2)

Nitric oxide (NO)

+

Oxygen atom (O)

Water vapor (H2O)

Hydrocarbons

UV radiation

Peroxyacyl nitrates

(PANs)

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

Oxygen (O2)

Nitric oxide (NO)

Oxygen (O2)

Burning fossil fuels

Nitrogen (N) in fossil fuel

Fig. 18-9, p. 477

denver s brown cloud
Denver’s Brown Cloud:

http://www.infrastructurist.com/wp-content/uploads/brown-cloud.jpg

several factors can decrease or increase outdoor air pollution 1
Several Factors Can Decrease or Increase Outdoor Air Pollution (1)
  • Outdoor air pollution may be decreased by
    • Settling of particles due to gravity
    • Rain and snow
    • Salty sea spray from the ocean
    • Winds
    • Chemical reactions
several factors can decrease or increase outdoor air pollution 2
Several Factors Can Decrease or Increase Outdoor Air Pollution (2)
  • Outdoor air pollution may be increased by
    • Urban buildings
    • Hills and mountains
    • High temperatures
    • Emissions of VOCs from certain trees and plants
    • Grasshopper effect
    • Temperature inversions
slide36

Descending warm air mass

Warmer air

Inversion layer

Inversion layer

Sea breeze

Increasing altitude

Decreasing temperature

Fig. 18-11, p. 478

18 3 what is acid deposition and why is it a problem
18-3 What Is Acid Deposition and Why Is It a Problem?
  • Concept 18-3 Acid deposition is caused mainly by coal-burning power plant and motor vehicle emissions, and in some regions, threatens human health, aquatic life and ecosystems, forests, and human-built structures.
acid disposition is a serious regional air pollution problem
Acid Disposition Is a Serious Regional Air Pollution Problem
  • Acid deposition, acid rain
    • Formation
    • Local versus regional problems
    • Effects of prevailing winds
    • Buffers
    • Where is the worst acid deposition?
slide39

Wind

Transformation to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid (HNO3)

Windborne ammonia gas and some soil particles partially neutralize acids and form dry sulfate and nitrate salts

Wet acid depostion (droplets of H2SO4 and HNO3 dissolved in rain and snow)

Nitric oxide (NO)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NO

Dry acid deposition (sulfur dioxide gas and particles of sulfate and nitrate salts)

Acid fog

Lakes in shallow soil low in limestone become acidic

Lakes in deep soil high in limestone are buffered

Fig. 18-12, p. 479

slide40

Potential problem areas because of sensitive soils

Potential problem areas because of air pollution: emissions leading to acid deposition

Current problem areas (including lakes and rivers)

Fig. 18-13, p. 480

acid deposition has a number of harmful effects 1
Acid Deposition Has a Number of Harmful Effects (1)
  • Human respiratory disorders
  • Aquatic ecosystems affected
  • Release of toxic metals
acid deposition has a number of harmful effects 2
Acid Deposition Has a Number of Harmful Effects (2)
  • Leaching of soil nutrients
  • Loss of crops and trees
  • Damage to buildings, statues, and monuments
slide43

Emissions

NOx

SO2 H2O2 PANs

Acid deposition

O3 Others

Increased susceptibility to drought, extreme cold, insects, mosses, and disease organisms

Direct damage to leaves and bark

Reduced photosynthesis and growth

Tree death

Soil acidification

Release

of toxic

metal ions

Leaching of soil nutrients

Reduced nutrient and water uptake

Root damage

Acids

Lake

Groundwater

Fig. 18-14a, p. 481

science focus hubbard brook study effects of acid rain
Science Focus: Hubbard Brook Study Effects of Acid Rain
  • White Mountains, NH, U.S.
  • Experimentation supports:
    • Trees do not suffer from direct contact with acid rain
    • Nutrients are leached out of the soil
    • Effect of Ca2+ on regrowth of the forest
we know how to reduce acid deposition
We Know How to Reduce Acid Deposition
  • Prevention approaches
  • Clean up
    • Add lime to neutralize acidified lakes and soil
    • Add phosphate fertilizer to neutralize acidified lakes
slide46

SOLUTIONS

Acid Deposition

Prevention

Cleanup

Reduce coal use

Add lime to neutralize acidified lakes

Burn low-sulfur coal

Increase natural gas use

Add phosphate fertilizer to neutralize acidified lakes

Increase use of renewable energy resources

Remove SO2 particulates and NOx from smokestack gases

Remove NOx from motor vehicular exhaust

Tax emissions of SO2

Reduce air pollution by improving energy efficiency

Fig. 18-15, p. 483

18 4 what are the major indoor air pollution problems
18-4 What Are the Major Indoor Air Pollution Problems?
  • Concept 18-4 The most threatening indoor air pollutants are smoke and soot from wood and coal cooking fires (a hazard found mostly in developing countries) and chemicals used in building materials and products.
indoor air pollution is a serious problem 1
Indoor Air Pollution Is a Serious Problem (1)
  • Developing countries
    • Indoor burning
    • Poor suffer the greatest risk
  • Developed countries
    • Indoor air pollution is greater than outdoor air pollution
indoor air pollution is a serious problem 2
Indoor Air Pollution Is a Serious Problem (2)
  • Why?
    • 11 of the common air pollutants higher inside than outside
    • Greater in vehicles than outside
    • Health risks magnified: people spend 70–98% of their time is indoors
indoor air pollution is a serious problem 3
Indoor Air Pollution Is a Serious Problem (3)
  • Who are at greatest risk from indoor air pollution?
    • Children under 5 and the elderly
    • Sick
    • Pregnant women
    • People with respiratory disorders or heart problems
    • Smokers
    • Factory workers
indoor air pollution is a serious problem 4
Indoor Air Pollution Is a Serious Problem (4)
  • Four most dangerous indoor air pollutants
    • Tobacco smoke
    • Formaldehyde
    • Radioactive radon-222 gas
    • Very small particles
  • Sources of these pollutants
  • Human health risks
indoor air pollution is a serious problem 5
Indoor Air Pollution Is a Serious Problem (5)
  • Other possible indoor air pollutants
    • Pesticide residue
    • Pb particles
    • Living organisms and their excrements
      • E.g., Dust mites and cockroach droppings
    • Airborne spores of molds and mildews
  • Sick-building syndrome
case study radioactive radon gas
Case Study: Radioactive Radon Gas
  • Sources
  • Human health risks
  • Testing for radon
  • Correcting a radon problem
slide57

Outlet vents for furnaces and dryers

Open

window

Cracks in wall

Openings around pipes

Slab joints

Wood stove

Cracks in floor

Sump pump

Clothes dryer

Furnace

Radon-222 gas

Slab

Uranium-238

Soil

Fig. 18-18, p. 485

18 5 what are the health effects of air pollution
18-5 What Are the Health Effects of Air Pollution?
  • Concept 18-5 Air pollution can contribute to asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, heart attack, and stroke.
your body s natural defenses against air pollution can be overwhelmed
Your Body’s Natural Defenses against Air Pollution Can Be Overwhelmed
  • Respiratory system protection from air pollutants
    • Role of cilia, mucus, sneezing, and coughing
  • Effect of smoking and prolonged air pollution exposure
    • Chronic bronchitis
    • Emphysema
air pollution is a big killer
Air Pollution Is a Big Killer
  • 3 Million deaths per year world-wide
    • Mostly in Asia
    • Main causes
  • EPA: proposed stricter emission standards for diesel-powered vehicles
  • Link between international trade and air pollution
    • Cargo ships and pollution
18 6 how should we deal with air pollution
18-6 How Should We Deal with Air Pollution?
  • Concept 18-6 Legal, economic, and technological tools can help to clean up air pollution, but much greater emphasis should be focused on preventing air pollution.
laws and regulations can reduce outdoor air pollution 1
Laws and Regulations Can Reduce Outdoor Air Pollution (1)
  • United States
    • Clean Air Acts: 1970, 1977, and 1990
  • EPA
    • National ambient air quality standards (NAAQs) for 6 outdoor criteria pollutants
    • National emission standards for 188 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)
      • Toxic Release Inventory (TRI)
laws and regulations can reduce outdoor air pollution 2
Laws and Regulations Can Reduce Outdoor Air Pollution (2)
  • Good news in U.S.
    • Decrease in emissions
    • Use of low-sulfur diesel fuel
      • Cuts pollution
  • Developing countries
    • More air pollution
case study u s air pollution can be improved 1
Case Study: U.S. Air Pollution Can Be Improved (1)
  • Rely on cleanup more than prevention of pollution
  • Raise fuel-efficiency for cars, SUVs, and light trucks
  • Better regulation of emissions of motorcycles and two-cycle gasoline engines
  • Regulate air pollution for oceangoing ships in American ports
case study u s air pollution can be improved 2
Case Study: U.S. Air Pollution Can Be Improved (2)
  • Why are airports exempt from many regulations?
  • Regulate greenhouse gas emissions
  • Ultrafine particles are not regulated
  • Urban O3 levels too high
case study u s air pollution can be improved 3
Case Study: U.S. Air Pollution Can Be Improved (3)
  • What about indoor air pollution?
  • Better enforcement of the Clean Air Acts
  • Is intense pressure needed from citizens to make improvements?
we can use the marketplace to reduce outdoor air pollution
We Can Use the Marketplace to Reduce Outdoor Air Pollution
  • Emission trading or cap-and-trade program
    • Mixed reactions to program
    • SO2 emissions down significantly
    • NO2 will be tried in the future
there are many ways to reduce outdoor air pollution
There Are Many Ways to Reduce Outdoor Air Pollution
  • 1980 –2006
    • SO2 emissions from U.S. electric power plants decreased by 66%
    • NOx emissions by 41%
    • Particulate emissions by 28%
  • Older plants not governed by the same regulations
  • New cars have better emissions
slide72

SOLUTIONS

Stationary Source Air Pollution

Prevention

Dispersion or Cleanup

Burn low-sulfur coal

Disperse emissions above thermal inversion layer with tall smokestacks

Remove sulfur from coal

Remove pollutants after combustion

Convert coal to a liquid or gaseous fuel

Shift to less polluting energy sources

Tax each unit of pollution produced

Fig. 18-22, p. 491

slide73

SOLUTIONS

Motor Vehicle Air Pollution

Prevention

Cleanup

Use mass transit

Require emission control devices

Walk or bike

Use less polluting fuels

Inspect car exhaust systems twice a year

Improve fuel efficiency

Get older, polluting cars off the road

Give large tax write- offs or rebates for buying low-polluting, energy efficient vehicles

Set strict emission standards

Fig. 18-23, p. 491

reducing indoor air pollution should be a priority
Reducing Indoor Air Pollution Should Be a Priority
  • Greater threat to human health than outdoor pollution
  • What can be done?
    • Prevention
    • Cleanup
slide75

SOLUTIONS

Indoor Air Pollution

Prevention

Cleanup or Dilution

Clean ceiling tiles and line AC ducts to prevent release of mineral fibers

Use adjustable fresh air vents for work spaces

Ban smoking or limit it to well-ventilated areas

Increase intake of outside air

Set stricter formaldehyde emissions standards for carpet, furniture, and building materials

Change air more frequently

Circulate a building’s air through rooftop greenhouses

Prevent radon infiltration

Use office machines in well-ventilated areas

Use efficient venting systems for wood-burning stoves

Use less polluting substitutes for harmful cleaning agents, paints, and other products

Use exhaust hoods for stoves and appliances burning natural gas

Fig. 18-24, p. 492

we need to put more emphasis on pollution prevention
We Need to Put More Emphasis on Pollution Prevention
  • Output approaches
  • New shift to preventing outdoor and indoor pollution
    • Pressure from citizens
slide78

SOLUTIONS

Air Pollution

Outdoor

Indoor

Reduce poverty

Improve energy efficiency to reduce fossil fuel use

Distribute cheap and efficient cookstoves or solar cookers to poor families in developing countries

Rely more on lower-polluting natural gas

Rely more on renewable energy (especially solar cells, wind, and solar-produced hydrogen)

Reduce or ban indoor smoking

Transfer energy efficiency, renewable energy, and pollution prevention technologies to developing countries

Develop simple and cheap tests for indoor pollutants such as particulates, radon, and formaldehyde

Fig. 18-26, p. 493

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