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WEEK 11. CRITICAL THINKING. OUTLINE. Concept and scope. Taxonomy Bloom. Scientific Method. 2. WHY CRITICAL THINKING? 1. "We should be teaching students how to think. Instead, we are teaching them what to think." (Clement and Lochhead, 1980),

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CRITICAL THINKING

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Critical thinking

WEEK 11

CRITICAL THINKING


Critical thinking

OUTLINE

  • Concept and scope.

  • Taxonomy Bloom.

  • Scientific Method.

2


Critical thinking

WHY CRITICAL THINKING? 1

  • "We should be teaching students how to think. Instead, we are teaching them what to think." (Clement and Lochhead, 1980),

  • “How to think" - to understand and evaluate the subject matter , discipline and everyday life.

  • “What to think“ - the subject matter or discipline content of the course.

4


Critical thinking

WHY CRITICAL THINKING? 2

  • The mine-is better habit (egocentric)

  • Socio-centric

  • Defense mechanism (face saving)

  • Resistance to change

  • Conformity

  • Stereotyping

  • Self deception

  • Overgeneralizations

  • Oversimplifying

  • Double standard

  • Shifting the burden proof

  • Irrational appeal

5


Critical thinking

CONCEPT 1

  • Kriths (Kritikos) means to judge.

  • “Critical thinking is, in short, self directed, self disciplined, self monitored and self corrective thinking.” (Paul & Elder, 2001).

  • “Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.” (Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2011)

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Critical thinking

CONCEPT 2

  • “Critical thinking can be described as the scientific method applied by ordinary people to the ordinary world. This is true because critical thinking mimics the well-known method of scientific investigation: a question is identified, an hypothesis formulated, relevant data sought and gathered, the hypothesis is logically tested and evaluated, and reliable conclusions are drawn from the result… (continue)

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Critical thinking

CONCEPT 3

  • …All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in everyday life rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. (Therefore) Critical thinking is scientific thinking.” (Schafersman, 1991)

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Critical thinking

ACTIVITIES (Jennifer Moon, 2008)

  • Review of someone else’ argument.

  • Evaluation of an object.

  • Development of an argument.

  • Critical thinking about the self.

  • Review of an incident.

  • Constructive response to the arguments of others.

  • Critical thinking as a habit of engagement with the world.

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Critical thinking

SYNTHESIS ON CRITICAL THINKING

  • Left brain.

  • Based on sequence and logics.

  • Think to make a decision.

  • Careful in risk taking.

  • Think to seek the truth.

  • Thinking for oneself.

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Critical thinking

“Too many people do not make up their own minds, but have their minds made up for them by salesmen, advertisers, parents, propagandists, TV, newspapers and so on.”(Abraham Maslow)

Does never lie

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Critical thinking

ENHANCEMENT

  • Games on language.

  • Argument.

  • Discussion.

  • Reading.

  • Observation.

  • Etc.

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Critical thinking

TWO CATEGORIES

  • LOW Critical Thinking

    • Differentiate.

    • Compare.

    • Categorise.

    • Make a sequence.

  • HIGH Critical Thinking

    • Futuristic thinking.

    • Inference.

    • Generalise.

    • Find a reason.

    • Justify the facts and the sources.

    • Conclude.


Critical thinking

DISADVANTAGES OF CRITICAL THINKING

  • Reactive and responsive.

  • Highlighting logic and rational.

  • Fear to make mistake and propose new and novel ideas.


Critical thinking

BLOOM TAXONOMY

  • It has been proposed in 1956 by a committee of educators of US chaired by Benjamin Bloom.

  • Majority always refer Bloom Taxonomy to the skills in the cognitive domain (there also affective and psychomotor domains) revolve around knowledge, comprehension, and critical thinking of a particular topic.


Critical thinking

KNOWLEDGE

  • What is...?

  • What happened after...?

  • Which is true or false...?

  • How many...?

  • Name…

  • Define…

  • Who…


Critical thinking

COMPREHENSION

  • Who do you think...?

  • What was the main idea...?

  • Can you provide the suitable example...?

  • Tell/write in your own words...

  • Distinguish between...


Critical thinking

APPLICATION

  • Can you apply the theory/principle/method/equation...?

  • From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about...?

  • What factors would you change if...?

  • What questions would you ask of...?


Critical thinking

ANALYSIS

  • Compare…

  • Explain…

  • Distinguish…

  • Categorise…

  • What was the turning point in the game?What do you see as other possible outcomes?


Critical thinking

SYNTHESIS

  • Create…

  • Invent…

  • Develop a proposal…

  • What if…?

  • Can you design a ... to ...?

  • Can you see a possible solution to...?

  • Why not compose a song about...?


Critical thinking

EVALUATION

  • Judge…

  • Justify…

  • Argue…

  • Do you believe?

  • Can you defend your position about...?

  • What do you think about...?

  • Are you a ... person?


Critical thinking

A REVISION ON BLOOM’S TAXONOMY

(Sousa, 2006)


Critical thinking

SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1

  • Science is the field of study which attempts to describe and understand the nature of the universe in whole or part.

  • Scientific method is a method in research to support or disprove a theory.

  • Theory is a hypothesis or group of hypotheses which have been validated by repeatable finding but not to the point of near certainty.


Critical thinking

Hypothesis (an educated guess as to the likely results of an experiment)

Theory

Scientific law (a statement accepted as fact by the scientific community


Critical thinking

SCIENTIFIC METHOD 2

  • Scientific method is an important way in gaining knowledge, besides that there are also other ways like revelation (holy book) and moral insight.

  • Basic steps: Observation, Question (problem statement), Hypothesis (prediction), Method (quantitative and qualitative), and Result.


Critical thinking

SCIENTIFIC METHOD 3

  • In university, scientific method must be applied in any kind of research, that finally become thesis, dissertation, report, book or article.

  • Scientific/academic journal might accept either research-based article and non-research-based article (book review, paper discussion, and practitioner article).


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