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Alternating Current Circuits And Electromagnetic Waves. Chapter 21. Introduction. Alternating current circuits play an important part in our lives. Electrical power production and transmission Communication systems Entertainment Medicine 224, 229. We will study

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Alternating current circuits and electromagnetic waves l.jpg

Alternating Current Circuits And Electromagnetic Waves

Chapter 21


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Introduction

  • Alternating currentcircuits play an important part in our lives.

    • Electrical power production and transmission

    • Communication systems

    • Entertainment

    • Medicine

      224, 229


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  • We will study

    • Circuits containing a source of emf and one or more of the following in series:

      • Resistors

      • Capacitors

      • Inductors


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  • We will study

    • Electromagnetic waves

      • Composed of fluctuating electrical and magnetic waves

        • Radio frequencies (RF)

        • Radar

        • Microwaves

        • Infrared

        • Visible light

        • Ultraviolet

        • X-rays

        • Gamma Rays


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AC Generators

  • The output of an ac generator

    • ac generator symbol

    • Formula for instantaneous voltage (Dv)

      21.1/21.2


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Resistors In An ac Circuit

  • Current and voltage arein stepwith each other.(in phase)


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  • The average valueof the current over one cycle is zero.

  • Power formula:


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rms Current

  • rms current(root mean square)

    • It is the direct current that would dissipate the same amount of energy in a resistor as an ac current of that value.


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Rms Voltage

  • Rms voltage

    • 120 V rms in our homes


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Ohm’s Law In An ac Circuit

  • Ohm’s Lawis valid for resistors in ac circuits.


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Review

  • Capacitors in a dc circuit

    • Charging

      • As the voltage across the capacitor increases, the current decreases.

    • RC time constant

      21.4


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Capacitors In An ac Circuit

  • In a capacitive ac circuit, the current always leads the voltage by 90o.

    21.5


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Capacitive Reactance

  • Capacitive reactance (ohms)

    • Similar to resistance in a dc circuit

      • Decreases with frequency

    • Opposes a change in ac voltage

    • Formulas:


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Inductive Reactance

  • Inductive reactance (ohms)

    • Similar to resistance in a dc circuit

      • Increases with frequency

    • Opposes a change in ac current

    • Formulas:

      21.6/21.7


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  • In an inductive ac circuit, the voltage always leads the current by 90o.

    ELItheICEman

    21.7


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ELItheICEman

  • Three important relationships:

    • The instantaneous voltage across the resistor is in phase with the instantaneous current.

    • The instantaneous voltage across the inductor leads the instantaneous current by 90o.

    • The instantaneous voltage across the capacitor lags the instantaneous current by 90o.


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The RLC Series Circuit

  • Impedance (Z)

    • The total resistance (ohms) in an ac circuit

    • Formula:

      221


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Phasors

  • Phasors

    • Rotating vectorswhich are used to represent the voltage across each component.

      • Separated by 90o

    • Phase angle (f)

      222


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Phase Angle

  • Phase angle


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Schematic Symbols

  • Review of circuit symbols

    • Table 21.2 (pg. 705)

    • Electronic Symbol Handout

      23


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Power In An ac Circuit

  • No power is lost in capacitors or in pure inductors.

    • A capacitor in an ac circuit does not dissipate energy.

    • A pure inductor in a ac circuit does not dissipate energy.


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  • Power Formulas:

    NOTE:cosfis called the power factor


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Review

  • Mechanical Resonance

    91, 95


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Resonance In A Series RLC Circuit

  • Resonant frequency (fo)

    • The frequency at which XL = XC

    • Important in tuning circuits

      • Radios, televisions, cell phones

      • Airport metal detectors

    • Formula:

      223


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QUESTIONS

1 - 4, 6, 7

Pg. 726


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Transformers

  • What is a transformer?

    218


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Transformer Voltage

  • A transformer steps up or steps down ac voltages

    • Primary and secondary coils

      218


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Transformer Power

  • The power input to the primary equals the power output at the secondary.


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Transformer Efficiency

  • Efficiencies are between 90% and 99%.


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The Transformer Equation

Np/Ns is the turns ratio


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The Transformer

  • Applications:

    • AC/DC electronic equipment

    • Power distribution

    • Automobile ignition systems

      219, 220


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Maxwell’s Theory

  • Electric field lines originate on positive charges and terminate on negative charges.

  • Magnetic field lines always form closed loops.

  • A varying magnetic field induces an emf and hence an electric field.

  • Magnetic fields are generated by moving charges (or currents).

    21.18


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Maxwell’s Hypothesis

  • A changing electric field should produce a magnetic field.

    • This could not be proven experimentally because the electric fields were too weak to detect at the time.


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Maxwell’s Prediction

  • Maxwell came up with the concept of electromagnetic waves and predicted that they would travel at the speed of light.

    21.20


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Maxwell’s Conclusion

  • He concluded that light waves are electromagnetic in nature.


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Hertz’s Discovery

  • Hertz was the first to generate and detect electromagnetic waves in the laboratory.

    21.17


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Hertz’s Apparatus


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EM Resonance

  • Hertz achieved resonance and transferred electromagnetic energy between two coils which were several meters apart.

    • Resonant frequency(fo)formula


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Properties EM Radiation

  • Hertz showed that electromagnetic radiation exhibited wave properties.

    • Reflection

    • Refraction

    • Diffraction

    • Interference

    • Polarization

      231, 232


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The Speed of EM Waves

  • Hertz showed that electromagnetic radiation traveled at the speed of light.


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Hertz’s Contribution

  • Hertz’s experiments provided the first proof of Maxwell’s theories.


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Production Of EM Waves By An Antenna

  • Energy stored in an LC circuit is constantly transferred between the electric and magnetic fields.

    • Electromagnetic waves are generated if this happens rapidly.

      • Antennas are used to produce electromagnetic waves.

        177, 178


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EM Waves

228


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Properties Of EM Waves

  • Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves.

  • They travel at the speed of light.

    • Light is an electromagnetic wave

  • They can travel through a vacuum.


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A Special Relationship

  • The ratio of the electric field strength (E) to the magnetic field strength (B) equals the speed of light.


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Energy and Momentum

  • Electromagnetic waves carry both energy and momentum.


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The Speed of EM Waves

  • Important formula:


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Visible Light

  • Range of wavelengths for visible light:

    • 400 nmto 700 nm

      69


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The Spectrum Of EM Waves

  • Types of waves(increasing in frequency and energy)

    • Radio waves

    • Microwaves

    • Infrared waves (heat waves)

    • Visible light

    • Ultraviolet light (UV)

    • X-rays

    • Gamma rays

      21.23


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Review-The Doppler Effect

  • Sound waves exhibit the Doppler effect

    • Trains

    • Race cars


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The Doppler Effect For EM Waves

  • Astronomy

    • The expanding universe

      • Red shift

      • Blue shift

      • Rotation of galaxies


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The Red Shift


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QUESTIONS

9 - 15

Pg. 726


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