Chapter 3 biochemistry
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Chapter 3 Biochemistry . 3.1. Organic molecules are carbon based There are many different organic molecules Simplest organic molecules- hydrocarbons. 3.1. Diverse Organic Molecules are possible because carbon can bond to carbon and form Long chains Ring structures

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Chapter 3 Biochemistry

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Chapter 3 Biochemistry


3.1

  • Organic molecules are carbon based

  • There are many different organic molecules

  • Simplest organic molecules- hydrocarbons


3.1

  • Diverse Organic Molecules are possible because carbon can bond to carbon and form

    • Long chains

    • Ring structures

    • Single , double or triple bonds

    • isomers

    • We can form many different carbon skeletons


3.2 Functional Groups

  • Others groups of atoms are added to the carbon skeleton to create molecules with different chemical properties- Functional groups


3.2 Functional Groups

  • Carboxyl – weak acid, in acids, including amino acids

  • Carbonyl- polar, found in ketones and aldehydes, sugars

  • Hydroxyl- polar, in alcohols

  • Amino- weak base, found in amino acids

  • Phosphate- polar, found in DNA and the energy molecule ATP


3.3 Creating and digesting macromolecules

  • Four classes of organic macromolecules

    • Carbohydrates

    • Lipids

    • Proteins

    • Nucleic Acids

    • Carbs, Proteins and Nucleic acids are polymers


Polymers

  • Polymer- a large molecule consisting of many smaller similar subunits called monomers

  • Polymers are formed by connecting monomers in a dehydration reaction. This produces water as a waste.

  • Polymers are digested by adding water and creating monomers- Hydrolysis reaction


3.4 Carbohydrates

  • Monosaccharides

  • Disaccharides

  • Polysaccharides


3.4 Monosacharides

  • Molecular formula- CH2O

  • Contain carbonyl and hydroxyl groups

  • building blocks of disaccharides and polysaccharides

  • Glucose- main cellular fuel

  • Fructose- fruit sugar

  • Ribose, deoxyribose– sugars found in nucleic acids


3.5 Disaccharides

  • When two monosaccharidesare linked by a dehydration reaction a discaccharide forms

  • Glucose + Glucose = Maltose

  • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose

  • Glucose + Galactose= Lactose


3.7 Polysaccharides

  • Long chains of monosaccharides are polysaccharides

  • Starch

  • Glycogen

  • Cellulose

  • Chitin


3.8 Lipids

  • Lipids – also called fats or triglycerides

  • Are hydrophobic- do not mix in water

  • Made of glycerol and three fatty acids

    linked by dehydration synthesis


Fatty Acids

  • May be saturated – have no double bonds so carbons have all of the hydrogens possible

  • Unsaturated – at least one double bond, missing hydrogens


3.8 Fats

  • Fats store energy (2x as much as an equal mass of carb)

  • Waterproof

  • Cushion

  • Insulate


Saturated Fats

  • Come from animals

  • Are solids at room temp

  • Are generally not very healthy for you and should be limited in your diet


Unsaturated Fats

  • Come from Plants (with one exception) and are liquids at room temperature

  • Are generally healthier for us


Polyunsaturated fats

  • Polyunsaturated fats are found in some types of fish and have been found to help lower cholesterol.


Hydrogenated Oils

  • Liquid oils are turned into solids by adding hydrogens to them

  • This process creates Trans Fat – which has been linked with heart disease

  • Is in most baked goods


Atherosclerosis

  • The building of lipid deposits in artery walls

  • Reduces blood flow

  • Plays a role in heart disease


3.9 modified fats

  • Waxes- one fatty acid linked to an alcohol

  • Phospholipids- one glycerol, 2fatty acids and a phosphate in place of the third fatty acid- make up cell membranes


3.10 Steroids

  • Steroids are made of three 6 sided rings and one five sided ring

  • Cholesterol is a steroid associated with saturated fat

  • Estrogen and testosterone are made from cholesterol


3.10 anabolic steroids

  • Synthetic testosterones which build bone and muscle mass

  • May lead to mood disturbance, liver damage, high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, in adolescents bones may stop growing, and acne and baldness (both are influenced by testosterone)


Reproductive Side Effects

  • Males will reduce the production of natural male hormone which may impair normal reproductive function and fertility.

  • Females have very little testosterone in their system naturally so they may experience disrupted menstrual cycles, and develop male traits like facial hair, voice deepening etc


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