Chapter 3 biochemistry
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Chapter 3 Biochemistry . 3.1. Organic molecules are carbon based There are many different organic molecules Simplest organic molecules- hydrocarbons. 3.1. Diverse Organic Molecules are possible because carbon can bond to carbon and form Long chains Ring structures

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Chapter 3 Biochemistry

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Chapter 3 biochemistry

Chapter 3 Biochemistry


Chapter 3 biochemistry

3.1

  • Organic molecules are carbon based

  • There are many different organic molecules

  • Simplest organic molecules- hydrocarbons


Chapter 3 biochemistry

3.1

  • Diverse Organic Molecules are possible because carbon can bond to carbon and form

    • Long chains

    • Ring structures

    • Single , double or triple bonds

    • isomers

    • We can form many different carbon skeletons


3 2 functional groups

3.2 Functional Groups

  • Others groups of atoms are added to the carbon skeleton to create molecules with different chemical properties- Functional groups


3 2 functional groups1

3.2 Functional Groups

  • Carboxyl – weak acid, in acids, including amino acids

  • Carbonyl- polar, found in ketones and aldehydes, sugars

  • Hydroxyl- polar, in alcohols

  • Amino- weak base, found in amino acids

  • Phosphate- polar, found in DNA and the energy molecule ATP


3 3 creating and digesting macromolecules

3.3 Creating and digesting macromolecules

  • Four classes of organic macromolecules

    • Carbohydrates

    • Lipids

    • Proteins

    • Nucleic Acids

    • Carbs, Proteins and Nucleic acids are polymers


Polymers

Polymers

  • Polymer- a large molecule consisting of many smaller similar subunits called monomers

  • Polymers are formed by connecting monomers in a dehydration reaction. This produces water as a waste.

  • Polymers are digested by adding water and creating monomers- Hydrolysis reaction


3 4 carbohydrates

3.4 Carbohydrates

  • Monosaccharides

  • Disaccharides

  • Polysaccharides


3 4 monosacharides

3.4 Monosacharides

  • Molecular formula- CH2O

  • Contain carbonyl and hydroxyl groups

  • building blocks of disaccharides and polysaccharides

  • Glucose- main cellular fuel

  • Fructose- fruit sugar

  • Ribose, deoxyribose– sugars found in nucleic acids


3 5 disaccharides

3.5 Disaccharides

  • When two monosaccharidesare linked by a dehydration reaction a discaccharide forms

  • Glucose + Glucose = Maltose

  • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose

  • Glucose + Galactose= Lactose


3 7 polysaccharides

3.7 Polysaccharides

  • Long chains of monosaccharides are polysaccharides

  • Starch

  • Glycogen

  • Cellulose

  • Chitin


3 8 lipids

3.8 Lipids

  • Lipids – also called fats or triglycerides

  • Are hydrophobic- do not mix in water

  • Made of glycerol and three fatty acids

    linked by dehydration synthesis


Fatty acids

Fatty Acids

  • May be saturated – have no double bonds so carbons have all of the hydrogens possible

  • Unsaturated – at least one double bond, missing hydrogens


3 8 fats

3.8 Fats

  • Fats store energy (2x as much as an equal mass of carb)

  • Waterproof

  • Cushion

  • Insulate


Saturated fats

Saturated Fats

  • Come from animals

  • Are solids at room temp

  • Are generally not very healthy for you and should be limited in your diet


Unsaturated fats

Unsaturated Fats

  • Come from Plants (with one exception) and are liquids at room temperature

  • Are generally healthier for us


P olyunsaturated fats

Polyunsaturated fats

  • Polyunsaturated fats are found in some types of fish and have been found to help lower cholesterol.


Hydrogenated oils

Hydrogenated Oils

  • Liquid oils are turned into solids by adding hydrogens to them

  • This process creates Trans Fat – which has been linked with heart disease

  • Is in most baked goods


Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis

  • The building of lipid deposits in artery walls

  • Reduces blood flow

  • Plays a role in heart disease


3 9 modified fats

3.9 modified fats

  • Waxes- one fatty acid linked to an alcohol

  • Phospholipids- one glycerol, 2fatty acids and a phosphate in place of the third fatty acid- make up cell membranes


3 10 steroids

3.10 Steroids

  • Steroids are made of three 6 sided rings and one five sided ring

  • Cholesterol is a steroid associated with saturated fat

  • Estrogen and testosterone are made from cholesterol


3 10 anabolic steroids

3.10 anabolic steroids

  • Synthetic testosterones which build bone and muscle mass

  • May lead to mood disturbance, liver damage, high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, in adolescents bones may stop growing, and acne and baldness (both are influenced by testosterone)


Reproductive side effects

Reproductive Side Effects

  • Males will reduce the production of natural male hormone which may impair normal reproductive function and fertility.

  • Females have very little testosterone in their system naturally so they may experience disrupted menstrual cycles, and develop male traits like facial hair, voice deepening etc


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