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Digital Photography. B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing. Media Technologies. Agenda. Digital Principles Camera Types Lens Principles Common Features Legacy Issues. B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing. Media Technologies. Digital Camera Principles. Digital Principles.

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B sc hons multimedia computing

Digital Photography

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies



  • Digital Principles

  • Camera Types

  • Lens Principles

  • Common Features

  • Legacy Issues

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

Digital camera principles

Digital Camera Principles

Digital principles

Digital Principles

Analogue to Digital Converter

White balanceAnti-aliasingCompression



Light from scene

Analogue Electrical Signal

Digital Signal



Digital principles1

Digital Principles

Size of sensor determines resolution of images



3008 x 2000 = 6,016,000 = 6 Megapixels (6MP)

Buffer size also important - buffer size determines many images you can take in quick succession

Types of digital camera

Types of Digital Camera

Types of digital camera1

Compact rangefinder type cameras -Limited features - aimed at general users ( novice / occasional use)

Prosumers Types - aimed at the advanced amateur / semi pro user - more sophisticated functionality - probably has a wide ranging zoom lens - but not interchangeable - affordable price

DSLRs (Digital SLRs) full system cameras with interchangeable lenses and other professional accessories such as dedicated flash systems etc. Expensive as compared with prosumer models

Types of Digital Camera

Digital camera types

Digital Camera Types



DSLR (Full Frame Sensor)

Mini dslr sony nex 5

Mini-DSLR: Sony NEX-5

Lenses for digital cameras

Lenses for Digital Cameras

Lenses for digital cameras1


Are digital camera lenses the same as film camera lenses?


Yes - but effect focal length depends on size of digital sensor used in camera

Lenses for Digital Cameras

Lens image circle coverage

Full frame 35mm film gate

Lenses circle coverage

Lenses Circle Coverage

Sensor not full frame thus any lens will have telephoto effect as compared with equivalent filmcamera lens

Full frame sensor

Full Frame Sensor

Sensor full frame thus any lens coverage and focal length the same as for film camera lenses

B sc hons multimedia computing

A ‘Prosumer’ Digicam – Canon Pro-1

LCD screen

Ultrasonic zoom lens


Common principles

Common Principles

Common photographic principles

Common Photographic Principles

  • Subject Matter ‘The Great Themes’

    • Portraiture

    • Still Life

    • Landscape

    • Social and Documentary

  • Lighting and Exposure

    • Available light (natural light)

    • Flash

    • Studio

  • Composition - ‘Rule of Thirds’

  • Gadgets (Lenses, Tripods, Filters, Bags)

Autofocus 1 blurred image

Autofocus (1) – Blurred image

Autofocus 2 sharp image

Autofocus (2) – sharp image

Image stabilisation

Image stabilisation

  • Canon’s newly developed Hybrid IS technology optimally compensates for angular camera shake (rotational) and shift camera shake (linear). Sudden changes in camera angle can cause significant blur in images taken during standard shooting, whereas blur caused by shift-based shaking, when a camera moves parallel to the subject, is more pronounced in macro and other close-up photography.

Intelligent recognition

Intelligent recognition

Flash and lighting

Flash and Lighting

Three Important features of a flashgun

1. Guide Number - indicates light power available

e.g (30 Meters at 100 ISO) reasonable power for average use

2. Recycling time - how long (in seconds) flash takes to be ready for next

3. Thru-The Lens (TTL) flash metering

Guide number: 165 in feet / 50 in meters 105mm (ISO 100)

Charge time: Approx. 6seconds (when using alkaline batteries) Approx 4seconds (when using NiMH batteries)

Pro flash lighting

Pro Flash Lighting

Guide Number = 60 Metres at ISO 100

Pro lighting studio flash

Pro Lighting -Studio Flash

Continuous background paper

Product photography

Product Photography

Copy Stands - provide consistent diffuse lighting for photographing product items

Flash photography tips

Use the Flash off-camera

Bounce lighting from white surface to diffuse lighting

Flash Photography Tips

Inverse Square Law - doubling the distance requires four times the light

What s changed

What’s Changed ?

Changes in the digital era

Changes in the Digital Era

  • Traditional Photography

    • Take pictures then develop and print using chemical processes in a ‘Darkroom’ - or send to a film lab

  • Digital Photography

    • Take pictures then upload to a computer and edit in graphics application or dedicated software application usually bundled with camera - can take a long time!

    • What images to print - often get left on the computer

    • Professional software available - Aperture and Lightroom

    • Software ‘Media Centres’ replaces the old technology of a slide projector and slide show

    • Take memory card to digital photo booths etc

B sc hons multimedia computing

The Darkroom

B sc hons multimedia computing

Digital Image Processing in ‘The Light Room’

Image formats and software

Image Formats and Software


  • Uses established image formats such as JPEG and GIF

  • New formats such as RAW - a raw i.e. ‘unprocessed’ image file contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of a digital camera and must be processed to be used as an editable image such as JPEG or GIF. Contents of RAW files are often considered to be of 'higher quality' than the RGB converted results.

  • RAW files different for each manufacturer - Adobe has developed .DNG Digital NeGative as a de-facto standard for RAW data to encourage usage of a common RAW format to prevent future legacy issues.


  • Adobe recently released version one of Lightroom - an integrated digital image editing and photographic library management system (PC & MAC)

  • Aperture - similar to Lightroom - aimed at professionals - already fairly well established in the professional market

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

Legacy issues

Legacy Issues

Digitizing legacy formats

Digitizing Legacy Formats

Converting film to digital …

  • Scan-in images and transparencies (slides)

  • Scan negatives into a digital format

Nikon Coolscan9000 ED35mm & 120 film (medium format)

Nikon Coolscan 5000 ED (35mm)



  • Some old photos

  • Digital resolutions

Scanned from an old photograph 1

Scanned from an old photograph (1)

Scanned from an old photograph 2

Scanned from an old photograph (2)

Speed affects noise

Speed affects noise…

Converting film cameras

35mm film cameras have a common film

chamber design…

Converting Film Cameras ?

Converting film cameras1

Most 35mm film cameras have interchangeable backs e.g. data backs etc.

Converting Film Cameras

Converting film cameras2

Solution - a digital sensor that fits inside the film chamber

and captures images at the film plane

Converting Film Cameras

Silicon film

Silicon Film...

Digital sensor film insert fits most SLR cameras!

Silicon film cartridge

Silicon Film Cartridge


The future

The future?

Software references

Software References

  • www.adobe.com - Lightroom tryout

  • www.apple.com - Aperture tryout

  • www.google.co.uk – Picasa 2

B.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing

Media Technologies

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