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think. SOAPSTone :. What do you remember about this nonfiction literary analysis tool?. “S” = Speaker. As you read, figure out WHO is telling, narrating the story. “O” = Occasion. As you read, ask yourself: for what reason did the person to write this?. “A” = Audience.

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What do you remember about this nonfiction

literary analysis tool?

“S” = Speaker

  • As you read, figure out WHO is telling, narrating the story.

“O” = Occasion

  • As you read, ask yourself: for what reason did the person to write this?

“A” = Audience

  • As you read, decide WHOthe writer is writing to / who is the audience?

“P” = Purpose

  • As you read, decide WHATthe writer’s purpose is –

  • What does the writer want the audience tothink or do?

“S” = Subject

  • As you read, decide WHOorWHATthe article is about.

“T” = Tone

  • As you read, decide what the attitude of the writer is towards their subject.

Reviewing Arthur Miller’sThe Crucible

Summarizing the story in order: popcorn!

Okay, so the story begins in a little town called Salem, MA, 1690s. Tituba, a freed black woman and young girls from Salem have been caught singing and dancing [ some nude? ] in the forest by the local Puritan minister, Rev. Paris….

Why call it The crucible?

What is the role of hysteria???

  • = many struggles faced by the people of Salem

  • = blending of the religious and the secular

  • = a testing of the people of Salem which results in change

The word “crucible” means a place or set of circumstances where people or things are subjected to forces that test them and often make them change.

“Why I Wrote The Crucible,” by Arthur Miller sheet.


He writes an allegorical play

  • Artists, musicians, actors even military personnel are targeted

  • McCarthy sees spies everywhere, provides little to no proof and whips the country into a hystrerical fear of communists from within destroying America

  • 1950s see a rise in tensions of the Cold War between US and Soviet Union


  • Sen. Joe McCarthy accuses many of being communist

  • “HUAC” [House Un-Amer. Activities Committee] is formed – fines and jails many…ruins careers and reputations.


  • Arthur Miller

  • Reads about Salem Witch Trials in the Province of Massachusetts: 1692 and 1693

  • Writes the play The Crucible after talking to friend Kazan about his HUAC testimony

  • Play is an ALLEGORY for McCarthyism- US gov’t BLACKLISTED accused communists

  • Later questioned by HUAC and denied passport to England to see London opening of his play

Why is The Crucible an allegory for McCarthyism?

Making the Connection

The Crucible


McCarthyism –

1950s America


The accusor/s:

The accused:

The method of a hearing to determine guilt

Who determines guilt / innocence

The method of punishment

Role of hysteria?

How is an end put to it?

How one friend of Arthur Miller’s, a fellow writer, came to his defense during the 1950s and risked his own career….

Soapstone:John Steinbeck’s essay, “The trial of Arthur Miller”

  • Sit by a partner -- work together to finish the SOAPSTone sheet from yesterday.

  • Send a partner to a copy of the reading for you both. OR Google “The Trial of Arthur Miller” and read it online.

  • If you were absent, come see me.


Read and soapstone “the Trial of Arthur Miller”

  • Date of publication: June, 1957

  • Source: Esquire magazine

    “S” = John Steinbeck

    “O” = writes in response to Arthur Miller’s time testifying before HUAC during Sen. Joe McCarthy’s “Red Scare”

    “ A” = male reader’s of Esquire, a men’s magazine

“the Trial of Arthur Miller”

“P” = to inform the general public of the possible misuse of Congress’s power to call people to testify and to call into question the actions of the HUAC

“S” = questions what is the right thing for Congress to do– use their legal right to question or to abstain from questioning because it is the morally right thing to do

“Tone” = thoughtful, logical argument using Ad Populum patriotic rhetoric / ethos – well known American writer who often writes about social issues

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