THE CRUSADES. “To take up the Cross” . Background. Feudal System Bellicose Society and Culture Impending threat of Muslims/ Muslim occupation of the Holy Land. Immensely strong religious duties and bond to Christendom Great Schism just happened in 1054 . Pope Urban II call to Crusade.
“To take up the Cross”
Bellicose Society and Culture
Impending threat of Muslims/ Muslim occupation of the Holy Land.
Immensely strong religious duties and bond to Christendom
Great Schism just happened in 1054
Read Pope Urban II’s address at Clermont.
European Nobles answer the Pope’s call and lead armies to the Holy Land.
Jerusalem is captured, Christians now have control of the Holy Land!
Divided into 4 new fiefs:
Access to Holy Land!
City of Edessa is attacked by Muslims – Christians respond.
King Louis VII (France) & Emperor Conrad II (Holy Roman Empire/Germany) lead the 2nd Crusade.
Set out to capture Damascus in order to defend Jerusalem.
FAILURE – Thought to be due to the sins and moral laxity of Christendom
Saladin- Great Muslim leader who has united his people and preaches jihad against the Christians.
Takes Jerusalem in 1187
Christians respond with the 3rd Crusade!
Richard the Lionhearted (England), Emperor Frederick Barbarossa (Germany), King Philip (France).
SUCCESS?!... Sort of: Richard the Lionhearted and Saladin make a Truce. Christians are granted safe and tax free passage to the Holy Land.
Christians sack Constantinople!
- Did not help the East and West conflict…
1. The abuses of some of the Crusaders gave the Church a bad name
2. The attack upon fellow Christians in Constantinople made bad feelings between East and West worse (4th Crusade)
3. The unsuccessful Crusades made some Christians bitter
4. The Crusades were not permanently successful
1. Renewed Christian faith,
2. Strengthened the influence of the Papacy and the Church
3. Promoted knighthood and chivalry
4. United Christians
5. Eastern products: paper, silk, spices; Developed international trade and travel
6 . Recovery of relics, land and Churches
7. Arabic numerals
8. Warded off Muslim Invasion