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THE CRUSADES. “To take up the Cross” . Background. Feudal System Bellicose Society and Culture Impending threat of Muslims/ Muslim occupation of the Holy Land. Immensely strong religious duties and bond to Christendom Great Schism just happened in 1054 . Pope Urban II call to Crusade.

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the crusades

THE CRUSADES

“To take up the Cross”

background
Background

Feudal System

Bellicose Society and Culture

Impending threat of Muslims/ Muslim occupation of the Holy Land.

Immensely strong religious duties and bond to Christendom

Great Schism just happened in 1054

pope urban ii call to crusade
Pope Urban II call to Crusade

Read Pope Urban II’s address at Clermont.

  • Why is he calling for a Crusade?
  • Who is his audience ;who is this call to?
  • What are the incentives of a crusader?
causes for the crusades
Causes for the Crusades
  • Protect the Eastern Rite Catholic churches
  • Regain the Holy Land
    • Shrines, Relics, Holy Places, etc.
  • Counter Muslim threat
why go on crusade
Why go on Crusade?
  • Service to country and Religion
  • Adventure
  • Looking to increase wealth and/or status
  • Plenary Indulgence (removal of sin)
  • Chance for martyrdom (straight to heaven if you die)
  • Pilgrimage to the Holy Land
  • Duty
first crusade conclusion
First Crusade Conclusion

European Nobles answer the Pope’s call and lead armies to the Holy Land.

Jerusalem is captured, Christians now have control of the Holy Land!

Divided into 4 new fiefs:

  • Kingdom of Jerusalem
  • County of Tripoli
  • County of Edessa,
  • Principality of Antioch

Access to Holy Land!

SUCCESS!!!

outremer states
Outremer States
  • Difficult to control
  • Many Christians went back to Europe
  • Military Orders created to help.
  • Mixing of Muslim and Christian culture.
second crusade 1147 1149
Second Crusade 1147-1149

City of Edessa is attacked by Muslims – Christians respond.

King Louis VII (France) & Emperor Conrad II (Holy Roman Empire/Germany) lead the 2nd Crusade.

Set out to capture Damascus in order to defend Jerusalem.

FAILURE – Thought to be due to the sins and moral laxity of Christendom

third crusade 1189 1192
Third Crusade 1189-1192

Saladin- Great Muslim leader who has united his people and preaches jihad against the Christians.

Takes Jerusalem in 1187

Christians respond with the 3rd Crusade!

Richard the Lionhearted (England), Emperor Frederick Barbarossa (Germany), King Philip (France).

SUCCESS?!... Sort of: Richard the Lionhearted and Saladin make a Truce. Christians are granted safe and tax free passage to the Holy Land.

fourth crusade 1201 1204
Fourth Crusade 1201-1204

Christians sack Constantinople!

WHY?!

  • Crusaders indebted to Venetian traders
  • Political reasons
  • Misguided emotions and anger.

- Did not help the East and West conflict…

other crusades
Other Crusades

Unofficial Crusades

  • People’s Crusade – Peter the Hermit encouraged the regular people of Europe to go on Crusade and free the Holy Land  most were killed
  • Children’s Crusade – 1000s of children were encouraged by their parents to walk to Jerusalem and free it  most starved to death as they walked towards the ocean, others were sold into slavery
other crusades1
Other Crusades
  • Crusades 5-9
  • Peoples Crusade
  • Children’s Crusade
  • Wendish
  • Northern Crusades
  • Albigensian
  • Aragonese
effects of the crusades
Effects of the Crusades

Positive

Negative

1. The abuses of some of the Crusaders gave the Church a bad name

2. The attack upon fellow Christians in Constantinople made bad feelings between East and West worse (4th Crusade)

3. The unsuccessful Crusades made some Christians bitter

4. The Crusades were not permanently successful

1. Renewed Christian faith,

2. Strengthened the influence of the Papacy and the Church

3. Promoted knighthood and chivalry

4. United Christians

5. Eastern products: paper, silk, spices; Developed international trade and travel

6 . Recovery of relics, land and Churches

7. Arabic numerals

8. Warded off Muslim Invasion

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