PASTURE/RANGE ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT. DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA. Definition.
DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA
Range management can therefore be define as the manipulation of dependent and controlling factor of the range ecosystem in other to maintain an equilibrium.
Multivarious uses -livestock/wildlife product, meat, milk, & skinBag, belt, leather industry, shoes
Tourism (wildlife) Recreation
Environmental values -Watershed protection
Increase in soil fertility
Socio Economic -Generation of employment
Marriage – fulanis)
Sources of Income
Socio cultural (basis of social status)
Socio political -Socio dislocation
Climatic factor Weather modification, or burning, water spreading
Geological materials Land leveling, Terracing, fertilization, groundwater, recharge
Available organisms Special introduction elimination and genetic improvement
(Plant & Animal)
B. Dependent factor
Wild fauna Grazing management, wildlife management, insect and rodent control
Livestock Grazing management livestock management disease control
Vegetation Plant control, re-vegetation, hay management, control of plant disease
Soil Mechanical treatment Nitrogen fertilization
Decomposers & Transformers Direct manipulation
Micro climate Shade shelter, mulching
Simply means the amount of water retained by the soil after there is rain, evaporation, and leaching. This determine the capacity of the soil to support plant and hold nutrient. The land that usually leached easily will not have appreciable moisture capacity and hence will not be able to hold nutrient and water
This is a measure of the extent of available soil for crop production/plant growth, from the surface of the soil is the unweathered zone beneath. There is considerable variation in soil depth even in the same area, it may be from a few cm (feet) to 40 feet.
Is the acidity and alkalinity nature of the soil the knowledge of soil pH help to prescribe necessary treatment for the soil and the plant if the need be.
Simply means how fertile the soil is. How rich in organic matter is the soil and how well a plant can grow in the soil without the application of either farmyard manure or
Benefit of range improvement
1. The quality of forage: The production, accessibility and maintenance of adequate supply of high quality forage is the bases of successful operation and the production of livestock and wildlife
2. The quality of forage by providing forage of greater palatability of higher movement content and of longer green growth period.
3. The animal production: This is often the 1 goal
4. Facilitation handling and caring of range animal this keep livestock more famed and docile
5. Control poisoning of livestock by poisonous plants by removing poisonous plant or by replacing the existing vegetation which non poisonous spp or by providing alternative sources of plantation poisonous plant.
6. Reduce fire hazard
7. These water yield or watershed by replacing woody spp which herbaceous plant
8. Control of insect on small animal by replacing their first plant often which desirable forage spp.
11. Reseeding the degraded ranges can provide needed forage for livestock and clean water for fishing stream
The type of range improvement must be carefully considered and properly located and utilized to give maximum benefit. Guide line to consider in selecting and locating range improvement include
1. Use only proven method except on small seal undertake project only where practical and economical procedure can be use.
2. Range improvement must be compatible, as goal of ownership
3. Availability of local or contract labour need equipment supervisory or consultative assistant needed must be ensure
4. Evaluate when range improvement can be most effectively utilize in the land or range management plan, determine the factor limit animal production that can be solved by range improvement.
5. Changing in management practices that will be required and maintenance that will be needed in other to obtain full benefit from the range improvement practices.
6. Expected cost benefit ratio range improvement are adjudged to after the greatest return on the investment is given priority.
7. Applied range improvement at appropriate stages of range deterioration, invading poisonous plant should be treated when they 1st appear since control is generally much less costly and more effective at that time.
8. Amount and characteristics of residual forage cover its existing plant stand adequate to satisfactorily respond to range treatment or would seeding be additionally required.
9. Locate range development in an area of great potential for range productivity areas which shadow or infertile Soil low site potential, low rainfall or steep topography often produce too little forage to justify extensive treatment.
10. Plan livestock handling facility that are practically beneficial both to the range land and range animal
11. Do not create new grazing distribution problem by spot treatment such as herbicide spraying moving or fertilization or improper location of livestock handling facility.