Dna and transcription tutorial
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DNA and Transcription Tutorial. Start from Beginning. Transcription. Predicting Transcription. Review Questions. Place your keyboard aside. Only use the mouse. Genes and DNA.

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DNA and Transcription Tutorial

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Dna and transcription tutorial

DNA and Transcription Tutorial

Start from Beginning

Transcription

Predicting Transcription

Review Questions

Place your keyboard aside. Only use the mouse.


Genes and dna

Genes and DNA

DNA can be divided into segments called genes. It is estimated that human DNA is composed of ~25,000 genes among its 46 total chromosomes.

Quick Review. Proteins are made from smaller units called _____.

Correct

Monosaccharides make up complex sugars

monosaccharides

Amino acids

Fatty acids make up lipids

Fatty acids

nucleotides

Nucleotides make up nucleic acids


Genes

back

Genes

Genes (small sections of DNA) are blueprints to make proteins for use throughout the body. Genes are found inside the nucleus of cells, but proteins are created outside of the nucleus.

Quick review. Which organelle creates proteins?

Mitochondria creates ATP energy

Chloroplasts creates sugars

mitochondria

chloroplast

Lysosomes break down food and pathogens

lysosome

ribosome

Correct


Meet melissa

back

Meet Melissa

Melissa is an architect and has designed a new high-rise apartment complex.


Meet melissa1

back

Meet Melissa

Melissa is an architect and has designed a new high-rise apartment complex.

The construction blueprint holds the information needed to create the high-rise apartment complex.


Meet melissa2

back

Meet Melissa

Melissa is an architect and has designed a new high-rise apartment complex.

The construction blueprint holds the information needed to create the high-rise apartment complex.

A gene is like the construction blueprints. The gene holds the information needed to make a protein.


Meet melissa3

back

Meet Melissa

Melissa is an architect and has designed a new high-rise apartment complex.

The construction blueprint holds the information needed to create the high-rise apartment complex.

A gene is like the construction blueprints. The gene holds the information needed to make a protein.

Quick Review. A gene is a small section of?

Proteins are created from DNA codes

DNA

Proteins

RNA

Ribosomes

Correct

Ribosomes make proteins

RNA is created from DNA. Stay tuned.


Transcription

back

Transcription

The DNA undergoes a process called transcription. Transcription is the process where the DNA code of a gene is used to make a molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA).

Examine the picture. The red letters are DNA nucleotides. The green letters are mRNA being created. Notice how mRNA nucleotides are attaching to the DNA sequence.

Quick review: Where is DNA stored?

Correct

Vacuole

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

Vesicle

Vacuole stores water and waste

Cytoplasm contains many organelles, but not the DNA

Vesicles usually transport proteins


Transcription continued

back

Transcription (continued)

Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

G

C

C

T

T

A

Key

Nitrogen base

sugar

phosphate


Transcription continued1

back

Transcription (continued)

Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together.

One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

RNA

Polymerase

A

G

C

C

T

T

A

Key

Nitrogen base

sugar

phosphate


Transcription continued2

back

Transcription (continued)

Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together.

One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

RNA

Polymerase

G

C

C

T

T

A

A

Key

Nitrogen base

sugar

phosphate


Transcription continued3

back

Transcription (continued)

Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together.

One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

RNA

Polymerase

G

C

C

T

A

A

T

Key

Nitrogen base

sugar

phosphate


Transcription continued4

back

Transcription (continued)

Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together.

One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

RNA

Polymerase

C

C

T

A

A

G

T

Key

Nitrogen base

sugar

phosphate


Transcription continued5

back

Transcription (continued)

Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together.

One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

RNA

Polymerase

C

C

A

A

G

T

T

Key

Nitrogen base

sugar

phosphate


Transcription continued6

back

Transcription (continued)

Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together.

One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

RNA

Polymerase

C

A

A

G

C

T

T

Key

Nitrogen base

sugar

phosphate


Transcription continued7

back

Transcription (continued)

Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together.

One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

RNA

Polymerase

A

A

G

C

C

T

T

Key

Nitrogen base

sugar

phosphate


Transcription continued8

back

Transcription (continued)

Now that the DNA has been separated, free-floating mRNA nucleotides bond to the now open DNA nucleotides.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

RNA

Polymerase

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


Transcription rules

back

Transcription Rules

Now that the DNA has been separated, free-floating mRNA nucleotides bond to the now open DNA nucleotides.

Before performing transcription, remember the table below.


Predicting transcription

back

Predicting Transcription

Use the transcription table to predict which mRNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

A

U

Remember:

DNA “A” with RNA “U”

DNA “T” with RNA “A”

DNA “C” with RNA “G”

DNA “G” with RNA “C”

Try Again

Click one

C

G

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


Predicting transcription1

back

Predicting Transcription

Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

U

A

U

Remember:

DNA “A” with RNA “U”

DNA “T” with RNA “A”

DNA “C” with RNA “G”

DNA “G” with RNA “C”

Try Again

Click one

C

G

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


Predicting transcription2

back

Predicting Transcription

Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

U

G

A

U

Remember:

DNA “A” with RNA “U”

DNA “T” with RNA “A”

DNA “C” with RNA “G”

DNA “G” with RNA “C”

Try Again

Click one

C

G

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


Predicting transcription3

back

Predicting Transcription

Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

U

G

U

A

U

Remember:

DNA “A” with RNA “U”

DNA “T” with RNA “A”

DNA “C” with RNA “G”

DNA “G” with RNA “C”

Try Again

Click one

C

G

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


Predicting transcription4

back

Predicting Transcription

Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

U

G

U

C

A

U

Remember:

DNA “A” with RNA “U”

DNA “T” with RNA “A”

DNA “C” with RNA “G”

DNA “G” with RNA “C”

Try Again

Click one

C

G

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


Predicting transcription5

back

Predicting Transcription

Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

U

G

U

C

C

A

U

Click one

C

G

Remember:

DNA “A” with RNA “U”

DNA “T” with RNA “A”

DNA “C” with RNA “G”

DNA “G” with RNA “C”

Try Again

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


Predicting transcription6

back

Predicting Transcription

Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

U

G

U

C

C

A

A

U

Click one

C

G

Remember:

DNA “A” with RNA “U”

DNA “T” with RNA “A”

DNA “C” with RNA “G”

DNA “G” with RNA “C”

Try Again

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


Predicting transcription7

back

Predicting Transcription

Now that the mRNA is complete, it will detach from the DNA…

exit the nucleus… and then hook up with a ribosome.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

U

G

U

C

C

A

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


Predicting transcription8

back

Predicting Transcription

Now that the mRNA is complete, it will detach from the DNA…

Exit the nucleus… And then hook up with a ribosome.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

U

G

U

C

C

A

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


Fate of the dna

back

Fate of the DNA?

Once the mRNA breaks away, the DNA will recombine.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


Fate of the dna1

back

Fate of the DNA?

Once the mRNA breaks away, the DNA will recombine.

T

A

C

A

G

G

T

A

G

C

C

T

T

A


The final stage

back

The final stage.

Remember Melissa? Her blueprint for the apartment complex needs to be copied and then taken to the construction site. In this analogy, Melissa would fax the blueprints over to the construction site. The fax would be the mRNA. The construction site is the ribosome.

Now that a copy of the blueprint has arrived, the construction team can begin to build the apartment complex. In a cell, now that the mRNA has arrived, the ribosome has the instructions to begin to make a protein.


The final stage1

back

The final stage.

mRNA makes a copy of the DNA…

the mRNA exits the nucleus…

the mRNA links up with a ribosome.

A

U

G

U

C

C

A

ribosome

Once at the ribosome, the process called translation will begin. Translation is the process where a ribosome builds a protein. The details of translation will be discussed another day. For now, let’s review.


Final review 1

back

Final Review #1

What will eventually be created by the DNA code of a gene?

ribosome

protein

nucleolus

Correct

Ribosomes will be used to make proteins

The nucleolus makes ribosomes


Final review 2

back

Final Review #2

RNA polymerase separates DNA at the start of which process?

We will discuss translation another day

transcription

translation

replication

Correct

DNA helicase separates DNA during replication


Final review 3

back

Final Review #3

RNA polymerase is a type of which organic molecule?

Which chemicals end with ASE?

Correct

Nucleic Acid

Carbohydrate

Lipid

Proteins/enzyme

Which chemicals end with ASE?

Which chemicals end with ASE?


Final review 4

back

Final Review #4

Remember:

DNA “A” with RNA “U”

DNA “T” with RNA “A”

DNA “C” with RNA “G”

DNA “G” with RNA “C”

Try Again

Remember:

DNA “A” with RNA “U”

DNA “T” with RNA “A”

DNA “C” with RNA “G”

DNA “G” with RNA “C”

Try Again

Remember:

DNA “A” with RNA “U”

DNA “T” with RNA “A”

DNA “C” with RNA “G”

DNA “G” with RNA “C”

Try Again

Which shows the process of transcription done properly?

Key

Black = DNA

Red = mRNA

Correct


Final review 5

back

Final Review #5

After exiting the nucleus, where will the finished mRNA travel?

Mitochondria makes ATP energy. mRNA is not needed for this.

The nucleolus makes ribosomes. mRNA is not needed for this.

mitochondria

ribosome

nucleolus

Correct


Final review 6

back

Final Review #6

Once arriving at the ribosome, which process will begin next?

Transcription already happened to make the mRNA that has arrived at the ribosome.

Replication is not performed while making a protein.

Correct

Replication

Transcription

Translation


Final review 7

back

Final Review #7

Click on the RNA letter that is not matched properly to the DNA letters.

Black = DNA

Red = mRNA

No. U joins with A.

No. G joins with C.

No. G joins with C.

No. C joins with G.

No. U joins with A.

No. G joins with C.

Correct

No. C joins with G.

No. G joins with C.

No. A joins with T.

No. A joins with T.


Final review 8

back

Final Review #8

Genes are small segments of _____.

No. Try again.

No. Try again.

Correct

Proteins

mRNA

DNA


Dna and transcription tutorial

I hope this tutorial was helpful. Turn in your handout. Feel free to start over if you would like to do some review.


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