Discovery of japan
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Discovery of Japan. In 1542, a Chinese junk with 3 Portuguese passengers in it was blown off its course to Macao and beached on a Japanese inlet. The stranded traders were befriended by the islanders, who took interest in their guns.

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Discovery of Japan

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Discovery of japan

Discovery of Japan

  • In 1542, a Chinese junk with 3 Portuguese passengers in it was blown off its course to Macao and beached on a Japanese inlet.

  • The stranded traders were befriended by the islanders, who took interest in their guns.

  • The Japanese began to manufacture guns on the island, called Tanegashima.

  • Trading expeditions soon embarked from every area Portuguese settlement to trade with Japan.


Jesuit missionaries

Jesuit Missionaries

  • In 1549, Francis Xavier became the first Christian missionary to land in Japan.

  • Nagasaki became the main gateway to Europe, and became identified with European contacts and with early Christian conquests.

  • The Jesuits worked from the top down, 1st converting the daimyŌs (“great names”), the feudal lords of the day. This secured the conversion of large numbers of feudal dependents, through command or coercion.


Francis xavier

Francis Xavier

  • Xavier came to a land that was

  • afflicted with poverty. He gave

  • to the poor and was “cultivated,

  • tactful, and brave”.

  • Xavier, determined to go to

  • KyŌto, hired himself out to carry

  • the baggage of merchants who were enroute and ran alongside their horses for most of the way.

  • Xavier stayed in Japan for only 27 months, but left a lasting legacy.


Draw of christianity in japan

Draw of Christianity in Japan

  • Certain features of Japanese society meshed well with the new religion:

  • the supreme ideal of sacrifice

  • the free remission of transgressions

  • promise of heaven to replace the poverty and misery on earth

  • In addition, the rites of the Catholic church were not unlike the ceremony used in Buddhism.


Christian intolerance

Christian Intolerance

  • Unlike Buddhism, which had come to Japan from China and had assimilated the native Shinto religion rather than replacing it, Christianity was not supportive of other views.

  • New converts burned their idols and destroyed Buddhist temples, along with works of art. Many Buddhist priests were killed as well.

  • “At first the foreign faith was persuasive; afterwards it became coercive & ferocious”


Spread of christianity

Spread of Christianity

  • In 1552 Nagasaki was ceded to the Portuguese as Christian territory.

  • By 1580, there were 125,000 converts on the island of Kyūshū, with 25,000 more in Yamaguchi prefectorate and 25,000 in the area around KyŌto.

  • By 1600, there were 600,000 Christians in Japan.


Oda nobunaga

Oda Nobunaga

Nobunaga was a daimyŌ who

ruled a small region of Japan

that he had inherited from his

father. He showed little

promise in his youth and was

so “gawky, careless, rough, and

undignified”, that his tutor

committed suicide in the hopes it

would bring his pupil to his senses.


Nobunaga s conquests

Nobunaga’s conquests

  • His teacher’s tactics apparently worked, after this he built up a strong army as well as his possessions and power.

  • At this time, the last in a line of ShŌguns (military governors) was traveling

    the country, looking for aid.

    Nobunaga took him to KyŌto,

    instilled him in office as a figure

    -head, and started building him a

    palace.


Nobunaga and christianity

Nobunaga and Christianity

Nobunaga was building this castle when he met his first missionary, Father Fröes, in 1568. Fröes pleased Nobunaga who was quoted saying this concerning the Jesuit missionaries: “These are the men

I like, upright, sincere men, who tell me solid things- unlike the Buddhist bonzes, who regale me with fables!”.

Their mutual dislike of Buddhism may have sealed the relationship between the priests and the dictator.


Nobunaga s reign

Nobunaga’s Reign

  • When the bonzes on Mount Hiyeizan gave shelter to his enemies, Nobunaga burned the 3000 monasteries on this mountain and killed or banished them all.

  • Later, he besieged and destroyed the monastic castle of Hongwanji, in Osaka, killing its 20,000 inhabitants.

  • In 1573, Nobunaga deposed the ShŌgun that he had installed, virtually becoming ShŌgun himself. He spurned the Christ-ians when they became too powerful.


Toyotomi hideyoshi

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

A peasant who started

working for Nobunaga as a

servant and worked his way

up through the ranks to become his

greatest general. He is known for his

military strategy, although he has been

described as “scarcely sixty inches in

height, with a face as wizened as a

sapless apple or a septuagenarian ape”.


Tokugawa iyeyasu

Tokugawa Iyeyasu

An aristocrat and another of

Nobunaga’s generals. He is

known for his great patience.

This is in contrast to Nobunaga,

who is famous for being resolute but

very impatient. The Japanese have a

saying: “Nobunaga pounded the rice

cake, Hideyoshi cooked it, and Iyeyasu

sat on a cushion and ate it!”.


Nobunaga s death

Nobunaga’s Death

  • Nobunaga’s undoing was his delight for humiliating his subjects. He once tucked a captain’s head under his arm and beat on it with his fan like a drumstick.

  • Then, when all Nobunaga’s troops were away on the battlefield and he was in a temple he had taken from Buddhists, the captain hired assassins to surround him.

  • Wounded by an arrow, Nobunaga set fire to the temple and turned his sword on himself.


Hideyoshi s close call

Hideyoshi’s Close Call

  • Nobunaga’s rival wasted no time in appointing himself ShŌgun. Meanwhile, Hideyoshi hurried toward KyŌto and found himself surrounded by the assassins. He swerved his horse off the road and found himself on a narrow path between rice fields, leading to a walled approach to a temple. When he found a number of monks enjoying their communal bath,Hideyoshi took off his clothes and dove in with them. When the assassins arrived, they could not find him.


Hideyoshi s revenge

Hideyoshi’s Revenge

  • Within 13 days of Nobunaga’s death, Hideyoshi had routed the traitors and forced the rival to commit suicide. He is known to this day as the “13-day ShŌgun.

  • Hideyoshi presented the head of this short-lived ShŌgun as an offering on Nobunaga’s tomb, but it was the first to offer incense at his tomb that became his successor. Hideyoshi then hurried to get a hold of Nobunaga’s infant grandson.


Hideyoshi s rise to power

Hideyoshi’s Rise to Power

Hideyoshi recalled the entire army to KyŌto and hid them around the city. When the memorial service arrived, Nobunaga’s two sons wrangled for position. Before they could burn their incense, Hideyoshi made a grand entrance with the grandson and argued that neither son was worthy to succeed his father. As he gave the signal, his troops appeared to quell the opposition and he was able to offer the first incense.


A unified japan

A Unified Japan

  • Within the next decade, Hideyoshi was able to bring all of Japan under his authority. Therefore the “honor of creating modern Japan must be assigned to him”.

  • He erected three of the most famous structures in Japan:

  • Osaka castle (for security)

  • Palace of Pleasure (for luxury)

  • A huge statue of Buddha (for vanity)


Taik the great prince

TaikŌ, the “Great Prince”

  • Hideyoshi would have liked to become ShŌgun but this was reserved for a blood relative of the other ShŌguns. Instead, he is known as the TaikŌ, or Great Prince.

  • He is considered the greatest of the three men who redeemed their country from destruction.

  • Hideyoshi invited his rivals to KyŌto and had them sign a binding recognition of his permanent supremacy.


That burning question

That Burning Question…

  • Once Hideyoshi asked a courtier if it was true that he looked like a monkey.

  • The courtier reasoned that, if he told the truth- he would be executed and, if he lied- he would be found out. So he asked for time to consider the question.

  • The next day, when pressed for his answer, the courtier replied “May it please Your Excellency, you do not resemble a monkey, but the monkey resembles you!”


Hideyoshi s conquests

Hideyoshi’s Conquests

  • Having brought all of Japan under his rule, Hideyoshi set out to conquer new lands.

  • Korea had long paid an annual tribute to the ShŌguns, but had stopped paying as the ShŌgunate grew weaker.

  • Hideyoshi demanded the overdue tribute, without avail.

  • Korea sent envoys to KyŌto to argue their cause, but Hideyoshi treated them with contempt and send them back with an insulting letter. The Korean king refused.


Invasion of korea

Invasion of Korea

  • Hideyoshi sent 300,000 troops to attack Korea in 1592.

  • His troops were superstitious and didn’t want to bring horses across the bay. “Ryūgū, the God of the Sea, is a hater of horses”, they said. “But this is a special occasion”, Hideyoshi insisted, “get me a pen and some paper”. He wrote a letter addressed to the god and threw it into the sea. The boatmen, their fears assailed, conveyed the horses to Korea.


Discovery of japan

  • Hideyoshi’s Letter:

  • “My dear Lord Ryūgū, it is quite necessary to send some horses to Odawara to subdue an impious rebel, so please see that they reach there in safety”.

  • Despite Hideyoshi’s rapport with the gods, the invasion of Korea was a disaster. The troops were bogged down for 6 years and failed to win control over Korea, let alone China. The same year he invaded Korea, Hideyoshi sent a letter to the Spanish governor of the Philippines, demanding tribute as well.


Arrival of the spanish

Arrival of the Spanish

  • It is not known whether the Spanish replied directly to Hideyoshi’s requests.

  • Shortly thereafter the first Spanish missionary came to Japan from Manila.

  • This missionary was a Dominican and several Franciscan “ambassadors” soon followed. Then, Spanish traders began to anchor in Japanese ports.

  • The Spanish were rivals with the Portu-guese, in terms of both commerce and religion.


The last straw

The Last Straw

  • In 1597, a big Spanish galleon, bound from Macao to Mexico, was stranded off the coast of Shikoku, across from Osaka.

  • The Spanish had been flouting Japanese laws, so Hideyoshi sent a boarding party to confiscate the cargo onboard.

  • The ship’s commander tried to dissuade the Japanese officials by bragging about Spain’s power, he even showed them a map of Spanish dominions throughout the world. When asked about this he said:


Discovery of japan

“Our Kings begin by sending into the countries they wish to conquer missionaries, who induce the people to embrace our religion; and, when considerable progress has been made, troops are sent who combine with the new Christians, and then our Kings have not much trouble in accomplishing the rest!”

Hideyoshi flew into a rage when the commander’s words were reported to him. He ordered a census of all those who were in close relation with the foreigners, but soon lost count.


Persecution of christians

Persecution of Christians

  • Hideyoshi’s own relatives as well as members of his court were numbered among the Christians.

  • He decided to make an example of two dozen Christians by crucifixion.

  • He chose Nagasaki as the site of the execution, and two Christians from there volunteered to by crucified after the rest arrived.

  • Christianity was soon banned in Japan.


Death of hideyoshi

Death of Hideyoshi

  • The following year, Hideyoshi fell ill. He left his infant son, Hideyori, in the care of Iyeyasu and implored him to recall the troops from Korea so they would not “become ghosts haunting a foreign land”.

  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi died in 1598.


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