Introduction to Management Information Systems Chapter 6 System Development
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Introduction to Management Information Systems Chapter 6 System Development







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Introduction to Management Information Systems Chapter 6 System Development . HTM 304 Spring 06. What Systems to be developed. Many different types of systems in the organization. Integrated Systems (e.g. ERP, etc). Inter –Organizational Information Systems (B2B, SRM, etc.). Other
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Slide 1

Introduction to Management Information SystemsChapter 6 System Development

HTM 304

Spring 06

Slide 2

What Systems to be developed

  • Many different types of systems in the organization

Integrated Systems

(e.g. ERP, etc)

Inter –Organizational

Information Systems

(B2B, SRM, etc.)

Other

organizations

Internet

Others

HR

Purchasing

Marketing

Operations

EAI

IT Infrastructure

Slide 3

System Development Fundamentals

  • System Development – a process for creating and maintaining information systems (IS)

    -- Also called System Analysis and Design (Dr. Fang & Kumar, Summer 2007)

  • Developing an IS involves all 5 components:

Slide 4

Personnel Involved

Constant interaction between Users (MIS, HTM 304) and IT professionals (System Analysis & Design, HTM 425)

Slide 5

Video – System Development

Slide 6

Think Big About System Development

  • Many students are new to the systems development process due to working with personal computer tools.

  • The scope of work is large with large-scale corporate information systems and may be global with different languages and cultures.

  • Management of resources is a critical success factor.

  • Comprehensive processes are required for project staff to follow and adhere to in order to successfully meet project and systems objectives.

Slide 7

Think Big (cont)

  • Three software sources

    • Off-the-shelf

    • Off-the shelf-with adaptation

    • Tailor-made

  • Major IS rarely off-the-shelf due to involvement of company people and resources

Slide 8

System Development Is Challenging

  • Systems development difficult and risky

  • Many projects never finished

  • Some projects finish 200-300% over budget

  • Some projects finish on schedule and within budget but don’t meet the goals

Slide 9

System Development Challenges

  • Difficulties in determining requirements

  • Changes in requirements

  • Scheduling and budgeting difficulties

  • Changing technology

  • Diseconomies of scale

Slide 10

Systems Development Methodologies

  • There are many different system development processes

    • System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

    • Rapid Application Development (RAD)

    • Object-oriented System Development (OOD)

    • Extreme Programming (XP)

  • Information Systems Differ

  • No single process works for all situations

Slide 11

Scales of Information Systems

Slide 12

The 5-Phase Version of SDLC in our book

Slide 13

System Definition Phase Tasks

  • Define project

    • Goals and objectives

    • Scope – statement of work

  • Assess feasibility

    • Cost (budget)

    • Schedule

    • Technical

    • Organizational feasibility

  • Form a project team

    • Project manager

    • In-house IT staff

    • Outside consultants and staff (as needed)

    • User representatives (management and staff)

Slide 14

SDLC Requirement Analysis Phase

Slide 15

Requirement Analysis Phase Tasks

  • The most important phase in the system development process is determining system requirements.

  • If the requirements are wrong, the system will be wrong.

  • If the requirements are determined completely and correctly, then the design and implementation will be easier and more likely to result in success.

  • Seasoned and experienced system analysts know

    how to conduct interviews to bring such

    requirements to light.

Slide 16

Obtain User Approval Before You Move-on

  • Once the requirements have been specified, the users must review and approve them before the project continues.

  • The easiest and cheapest time to alter the information system is in the requirements phase.

  • Changing a requirement in the implementation phase may require weeks of reworking applications components and the database.

Slide 17

Component Design Phase

Slide 18

Component Design Phase

  • Each of the five components is designed in this stage.

  • The team designs each of the five components by developing a list of alternatives.

  • Each alternative is evaluated against the requirements.

  • Typically the best alternative that meets the requirements is selected.

Slide 19

Hardware Design

  • Team determines specifications for hardware they want to acquire

  • Team NOT designing hardware

  • Typically, large company has some type of computer network infrastructure

Slide 20

Hardware Networking Alternatives

  • PC or LANs over public Internet

  • Point-to-point leased lines

  • Lease time on some type of PSDN

  • Create Virtual Private Network (VPN) over Internet

Slide 21

Program Design

  • Depends on program source

  • Off-the-shelf – team must assess products and evaluate them against requirements

  • Off-the-shelf with alteration - team IDs products and assesses alterations

  • Custom-design programs – team write specifications

    (documentation) for program code

Slide 22

Database and Procedure Design

  • Database design

    • Convert database design to data model

    • If off-the-shelf DB, little design needed

  • Procedure design

    • Procedures must be developed for system users and operations personnel to follow

    • Procedures typically address

      • Normal processing: procedures for using the system to accomplish business tasks

      • Backup: user procedures for backing up data and other resources

      • Failure recovery: Procedure to continue operation when system fails and procedures to convert back to the system after recovery

Slide 23

People Component -- Design of Job Descriptions

  • Job descriptions needed for both users and operations personnel

  • New IS may require new jobs

  • Organizations may have to add new duties and responsibilities due to information systems changes and enhancements

Slide 24

Implementation Phase

Slide 25

Comparison of Design and Implementation

Slide 26

System Conversion

4 ways to implement system conversion

  • Pilot – Implement entire system on limited portion of the business

  • Phased- New system installed in pieces across organization

  • Parallel – New system runs in parallel with old system for a while

  • Plunge – Old system turned off and new system turned on immediately

Slide 27

Maintenance Phase

New needs

Slide 28

Information System Maintenance

  • Either fixing system to make it do

    what is expected

  • Or adapting system to changing requirement

Slide 29

Problems with SDLC

  • The most formal procedure to develop large IS project

    • Systems development seldom smooth

    • Sometimes need to crawl back up waterfall

    • Difficulty documenting requirements in usable way

    • Scheduling and budgeting difficult, especially for large projects with large SDLC phases

Slide 30

Review of SDLC

  • What are the five phases?

  • Which phase is the most important?

  • Briefly describe the five phases.

Slide 31

Other Developing Methods

  • Rapid application development (RAD)

  • Object-oriented systems development (OOD)

  • Extreme programming (XP)

Slide 32

RAD

Basic idea - break up design and implementation phases of SDLC into smaller pieces

Use iterative process – build a piece of the system, test it and then make it better

Get user input with every iteration

- You are always involved.

Slide 33

RAD – Extensive Use of Prototypes

  • Extensive use of prototypes

    • A mock-up of aspect of new system and could be:

      -- Form -- Report

      -- Database Query --User Interfaces

Slide 34

E-R modeling of the Data Form

Slide 35

CASE Tools

  • CASE: Computer-assisted systems engineering

Slide 36

Summary of RAD Characteristics

  • Design / implement / fix development process

  • Continuous user involvement throughout

  • Extensive use of prototypes

  • Joint Application Design (JAD)

  • Use of CASE Tools

Slide 37

Object-Oriented Systems Development (OOD)

  • Began after RAD – mid 1990s

  • Driven by new program development method – Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

  • A series of diagramming techniques called Unified Modeling Language (UML) facilitates OOP development.

Example:

Unified Process

(UP)

Slide 38

Extreme Programming

  • Emerging Technique Developing Computer Programs

  • Not useful for large scale development system requiring business processes & procedures (or at least not yet realized)

  • There are cases where organizations have used it successfully in developing application programs.

  • Three main characteristics

    • Customer-Centric

    • Just-In-Time (JIT) Design

    • Paired Programming

Slide 39

Compare Development Techniques


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