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Introduction to Management Information Systems Chapter 6 System Development . HTM 304 Spring 06. What Systems to be developed. Many different types of systems in the organization. Integrated Systems (e.g. ERP, etc). Inter –Organizational Information Systems (B2B, SRM, etc.). Other

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Introduction to management information systems chapter 6 system development l.jpg

Introduction to Management Information SystemsChapter 6 System Development

HTM 304

Spring 06

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What Systems to be developed

  • Many different types of systems in the organization

Integrated Systems

(e.g. ERP, etc)

Inter –Organizational

Information Systems

(B2B, SRM, etc.)










IT Infrastructure

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System Development Fundamentals

  • System Development – a process for creating and maintaining information systems (IS)

    -- Also called System Analysis and Design (Dr. Fang & Kumar, Summer 2007)

  • Developing an IS involves all 5 components:

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Personnel Involved

Constant interaction between Users (MIS, HTM 304) and IT professionals (System Analysis & Design, HTM 425)

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Think Big About System Development

  • Many students are new to the systems development process due to working with personal computer tools.

  • The scope of work is large with large-scale corporate information systems and may be global with different languages and cultures.

  • Management of resources is a critical success factor.

  • Comprehensive processes are required for project staff to follow and adhere to in order to successfully meet project and systems objectives.

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Think Big (cont)

  • Three software sources

    • Off-the-shelf

    • Off-the shelf-with adaptation

    • Tailor-made

  • Major IS rarely off-the-shelf due to involvement of company people and resources

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System Development Is Challenging

  • Systems development difficult and risky

  • Many projects never finished

  • Some projects finish 200-300% over budget

  • Some projects finish on schedule and within budget but don’t meet the goals

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System Development Challenges

  • Difficulties in determining requirements

  • Changes in requirements

  • Scheduling and budgeting difficulties

  • Changing technology

  • Diseconomies of scale

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Systems Development Methodologies

  • There are many different system development processes

    • System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

    • Rapid Application Development (RAD)

    • Object-oriented System Development (OOD)

    • Extreme Programming (XP)

  • Information Systems Differ

  • No single process works for all situations

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System Definition Phase Tasks

  • Define project

    • Goals and objectives

    • Scope – statement of work

  • Assess feasibility

    • Cost (budget)

    • Schedule

    • Technical

    • Organizational feasibility

  • Form a project team

    • Project manager

    • In-house IT staff

    • Outside consultants and staff (as needed)

    • User representatives (management and staff)

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Requirement Analysis Phase Tasks

  • The most important phase in the system development process is determining system requirements.

  • If the requirements are wrong, the system will be wrong.

  • If the requirements are determined completely and correctly, then the design and implementation will be easier and more likely to result in success.

  • Seasoned and experienced system analysts know

    how to conduct interviews to bring such

    requirements to light.

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Obtain User Approval Before You Move-on

  • Once the requirements have been specified, the users must review and approve them before the project continues.

  • The easiest and cheapest time to alter the information system is in the requirements phase.

  • Changing a requirement in the implementation phase may require weeks of reworking applications components and the database.

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Component Design Phase

  • Each of the five components is designed in this stage.

  • The team designs each of the five components by developing a list of alternatives.

  • Each alternative is evaluated against the requirements.

  • Typically the best alternative that meets the requirements is selected.

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Hardware Design

  • Team determines specifications for hardware they want to acquire

  • Team NOT designing hardware

  • Typically, large company has some type of computer network infrastructure

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Hardware Networking Alternatives

  • PC or LANs over public Internet

  • Point-to-point leased lines

  • Lease time on some type of PSDN

  • Create Virtual Private Network (VPN) over Internet

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Program Design

  • Depends on program source

  • Off-the-shelf – team must assess products and evaluate them against requirements

  • Off-the-shelf with alteration - team IDs products and assesses alterations

  • Custom-design programs – team write specifications

    (documentation) for program code

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Database and Procedure Design

  • Database design

    • Convert database design to data model

    • If off-the-shelf DB, little design needed

  • Procedure design

    • Procedures must be developed for system users and operations personnel to follow

    • Procedures typically address

      • Normal processing: procedures for using the system to accomplish business tasks

      • Backup: user procedures for backing up data and other resources

      • Failure recovery: Procedure to continue operation when system fails and procedures to convert back to the system after recovery

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People Component -- Design of Job Descriptions

  • Job descriptions needed for both users and operations personnel

  • New IS may require new jobs

  • Organizations may have to add new duties and responsibilities due to information systems changes and enhancements

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System Conversion

4 ways to implement system conversion

  • Pilot – Implement entire system on limited portion of the business

  • Phased- New system installed in pieces across organization

  • Parallel – New system runs in parallel with old system for a while

  • Plunge – Old system turned off and new system turned on immediately

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Information System Maintenance

  • Either fixing system to make it do

    what is expected

  • Or adapting system to changing requirement

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Problems with SDLC

  • The most formal procedure to develop large IS project

    • Systems development seldom smooth

    • Sometimes need to crawl back up waterfall

    • Difficulty documenting requirements in usable way

    • Scheduling and budgeting difficult, especially for large projects with large SDLC phases

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Review of SDLC

  • What are the five phases?

  • Which phase is the most important?

  • Briefly describe the five phases.

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Other Developing Methods

  • Rapid application development (RAD)

  • Object-oriented systems development (OOD)

  • Extreme programming (XP)

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Basic idea - break up design and implementation phases of SDLC into smaller pieces

Use iterative process – build a piece of the system, test it and then make it better

Get user input with every iteration

- You are always involved.

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RAD – Extensive Use of Prototypes

  • Extensive use of prototypes

    • A mock-up of aspect of new system and could be:

      -- Form -- Report

      -- Database Query --User Interfaces

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CASE Tools

  • CASE: Computer-assisted systems engineering

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Summary of RAD Characteristics

  • Design / implement / fix development process

  • Continuous user involvement throughout

  • Extensive use of prototypes

  • Joint Application Design (JAD)

  • Use of CASE Tools

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Object-Oriented Systems Development (OOD)

  • Began after RAD – mid 1990s

  • Driven by new program development method – Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

  • A series of diagramming techniques called Unified Modeling Language (UML) facilitates OOP development.


Unified Process


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Extreme Programming

  • Emerging Technique Developing Computer Programs

  • Not useful for large scale development system requiring business processes & procedures (or at least not yet realized)

  • There are cases where organizations have used it successfully in developing application programs.

  • Three main characteristics

    • Customer-Centric

    • Just-In-Time (JIT) Design

    • Paired Programming