Cancer
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Cancer. By: Aujan M., Zach J., Aditya P. Genetic disease that results in uncontrolled growth. Mutation in genetic code results in failure of cell division control. ~90% of time, cancer mutation due to external environmental factors. Cancer due to inherited mutations ~10% of time. Overview.

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Cancer

Cancer

By: Aujan M., Zach J., Aditya P.


Overview

Overview


Overview1

Overview


Genetic basis

Genetic Basis


Genetic basis1

Genetic Basis


Causes of cancer

  • Majority of genetic mutations occur during S phase. can mutate and become oncogenes.

  • Result of 3 major mechanisms:

  • 1.) Carcinogens – cancer causing agents that cause mutation to cell’s DNA (anti-oncogenes). i.e.- chemicals and radiation.

  • 2.) Viruses – viruses insert their fragment of DNA into genetic material of cells they infect. DNA can compromise proto-oncogenes of cell.

  • 3.) Replicative Mutations – during replication, mutations can affect proto-oncogenes turning them into oncogenes.

Causes of Cancer


Types of mutations point mutations

Types of Mutations:Point Mutations


Types of mutations substitutions

Types of Mutations:Substitutions


Substitution
Substitution complimentary base with another complimentary pair.


Types of mutations insertions deletions

  • Adding/Losing Nucleotide Pairs – more harmful than substitutions because mRNA coded in series of triplets. Loss/gain causes entire sequence to shift over, resulting in shift in reading frame.

  • Frameshift Mutation – nucleotides inserted/deleted don’t come in multiple of three. Alters reading frame. Produces useless protein.

Types of Mutations:Insertions/Deletions


Insertion deletion
Insertion substitutions because mRNA coded in series of triplets. Loss/gain causes entire sequence to shift over, resulting in shift in reading frame./Deletion


Types of neoplasms benign

  • Benign Neoplasm – mass of cells whose cellular compositions is same as cells of surrounding tissues.

  • Surrounded by connective tissue, so metastasis doesn’t occur.

  • Nuclear fission similar to that of normal cells.

  • Since rate of division slightly higher than that of normal cells, tumor will grow slowly.

Types of Neoplasms:Benign


Types of neoplasms malignant

  • Neoplasms compositions is same as cells of surrounding tissues. whose DNA has mutated. Different from surrounding tissues.

  • Resemble immature and undifferentiated cells.

  • Growth is greatly accelerated and can become detrimental to surrounding tissue.

  • Neoplasm then breaks out of connective tissue capsule and can metastasize.

  • Usually contain degraded chromosomes joined incorrectly to another gene.

Types of Neoplasms:Malignant


Benign top and malignant bottom tumors
Benign (top) and Malignant (bottom) Tumors compositions is same as cells of surrounding tissues.


How do cells avoid death

  • Apoptosis- programmed cell death compositions is same as cells of surrounding tissues.

  • Inhibit the expression of Apaf-1

  • Secrete elevated levels of decoy soluble molecule that binds to Fas-L

  • Utilization of human proto-oncogene Bcl-2

How do cells avoid death?


Tumor suppressor genes

  • Inhibit cell division compositions is same as cells of surrounding tissues.

  • Contains p53 gene which binds DNA and stops it from allowing damaged DNA to divide

Tumor Suppressor Genes


Proto oncogene

  • Stimulates the cell cycle compositions is same as cells of surrounding tissues.

  • Ras is a gene turns on other genes through the signal transduction cascade which tells the cell cycle to go

Proto-Oncogene


Why do cancer cells grow uncontrollably

Why do cancer cells grow uncontrollably?


Processing nutrients

Processing Nutrients


Invading tissues

Invading Tissues


Treatments

Treatments


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