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CANCER. Cancer. Statistics Second leading cause of death 1 in 3 will develop cancer, 1 in 5 will die Approx. 556,500 Americans die each year from cancer Approx. 1.3 million will be diagnosed with cancer African Americans have the highest mortality rates of cancer

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cancer2
Cancer
  • Statistics
    • Second leading cause of death
    • 1 in 3 will develop cancer, 1 in 5 will die
    • Approx. 556,500 Americans die each year from cancer
    • Approx. 1.3 million will be diagnosed with cancer
    • African Americans have the highest mortality rates of cancer
    • Increased rates of cancer may be due to
      • Better diagnostic tools
      • Aging population
      • Exposure to carcinogens in the environment
cancer4
Cancer
  • Abnormal cell growth
  • Overtake healthy cells and destroy the organs involved
types of tumors
Types of tumors
  • Benign
    • Grows slowly
      • Still can kill ie. Brain tumors
    • Tumor cells are tightly bound
  • Malignant
    • Cells are loosely bound
    • May spread easily to other organs
how cancer spreads
How Cancer Spreads
  • Metastasis – cancerous cells break away from the primary tumor and spread to other organs
    • Lymphatic system
    • Blood stream
types of cancer
Types of Cancer
  • Carcinoma – 85% of cancers
    • Organs, skin, nerves, membranes
  • Sarcomas – 2% of cancers
    • Bone, blood, connective tissue
  • Lymphomas – lymphatic cells
    • Hodgkins disease
  • Leukemia – blood and blood forming tissue
  • Melanomas – skin cancer
survival rates
Survival Rates
  • Cured means no sign of cancer 5 years after treatment
  • Early detection is the key to survival
  • Lung cancer – lowest survival rate
    • 15% live five years after diagnosis
  • Colon and rectal cancer
    • 93% for colon cancer and 77% survive rectal cancer
  • Breast cancer
    • 98% survival rate with early detection, otherwise may drop to 25%
  • Ovarian cancer
    • 85% survival with early detection versus 30%
general treatment
General Treatment
  • Surgery
    • Removal of cancerous tissue
  • Radiation therapy
    • High energy doses to kill cancer cells
  • Chemotherapy
    • Medicine that kills the cancer cells
      • May block blood supply to tumor and prevent development of new blood vessels
    • Unpleasant side effects
  • Immunotherapy
    • Bolster immune system to destroy the cancer cells
lung cancer
Lung Cancer
  • Lowest survival rate
  • Early detection is difficult
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women
    • Female lung cancer rates have decreased 2% year since 1998
    • Death rates for women unchanged since 1995
  • Smoking causes over 85% of lung cancer in men
  • Alters the genetic material of the pulmonary cells
  • Smoking paralyzes the cilia in the lungs
  • The earlier you start smoking, the greater damage to the genetic material
  • Treatment is surgery, radiation and chemotherapy
breast cancer
Breast Cancer
  • High survival rate if it is detected early
  • Approx 215,000 women/yr in USA diagnosed with breast cancer
  • 40,000 die each yr
  • One in 8 women develop breast cancer, 1 in 25 will die from it
breast cancer14
Breast Cancer
  • Women at risk:
    • History of breast cancer
    • Genetic mutation BRCA1 or BRCA2
    • Family history
    • Benign breast disease
    • Dense breast tissue
    • First child at 30 or older or no children
    • Early menarche before the age of 12
breast cancer15
Breast Cancer
  • Women at risk
    • Alcohol consumption – more then 2-5 drinks per day
    • Diet high in saturated fats
    • Weight gain of 30-50 lbs during pregnancy
    • HRT
    • Obesity
      • 2/3 of women over 50 are overweight
      • Estimate that weight contributes to 1/3 to1/2 of all breast cancer deaths
  • Smokers
    • One pack per day increases your risk 4-5 times
  • Breast cancer in men
breast cancer16
Breast Cancer
  • Prevention
    • Monthly breast self exam
    • Preformed one week after the end of the menstrual cycle
breast cancer17
Breast Cancer
  • Monthly breast self exam
breast cancer18
Breast Cancer
  • Prevention
    • Mammography
    • Yearly mammogram starting at age 40
breast cancer20
Breast Cancer
  • Treatment
    • Needle biopsy
    • Surgery
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiation
cervical cancer
Cervical Cancer
  • Cancer in the cervical area of the uterus
    • 13,000 yr diagnosed
    • 4000 deaths per year
cervical cancer24
Cervical Cancer
  • Risk factors
    • Lower socioeconomic status
    • Sexually active before 18
    • Multiple partners
    • Women with herpes virus
    • Women with human papilloma virus
cervical cancer25
Cervical Cancer
  • Prevention
    • PAP smear
      • Minimum requirement is once every three years after you have had two normal pap smears one year apart
    • Cervical cancer vaccine
ovarian cancer
Ovarian Cancer
  • Cancer of the ovaries
    • 85% survival if detected early
    • 30% survival if it has spread
ovarian cancer27
Ovarian Cancer
  • Prevention
    • Women need to have regular medical exams to pick up early symptoms
    • Early detection difficult because of vague symptoms
    • HRT for menopausal symptoms may increase ovarian cancer rates by 30%
  • Treatment
    • Surgery, chemotherapy
men s health
Men’s Health
  • In general men fail to get routine check-ups and delay care
  • 1 in 3 men have no regular MD
  • 50% of men did not have a physical or cholesterol checked in the previous yr.
  • Men over 50
    • 6 in 10 have not been screened for colon cancer
    • 4 in 10 have not been screened for prostate cancer
prostate cancer
Prostate Cancer
  • Approx. 232,000 new cases each year, 30,000 die each year
  • Risk factors
    • Age over 50
    • Family history
    • Afro-Americans
    • High fat diet
    • BRCA 1 and 2 mutations
    • Obesity
prostate cancer32
Prostate Cancer
  • Prevention
    • PSA – prostate specific antigen, blood test
      • Men over 50 should have it done yearly
      • African Americans should have it done yearly over the age of 40
      • Routine PSA would reduce deaths by 69%
    • Digital rectal exam
      • Should be done yearly
  • Treatment
    • Surgery
    • Radiation
    • chemotherapy
testicular cancer
Testicular Cancer
  • Occurs in men between 15-34 yrs
  • Kills 42,000/yr
  • Greater risk if there is a family history
  • Treatment includes surgery, chemo, radiation
colon cancer
Colon Cancer
  • Five year survival rate
    • Early detection 93%
    • 150,000 diagnosed every year in California
colon cancer36
Colon Cancer
  • Risk factors
    • Genetic predisposition
    • Diet
      • High in red meat
      • Low in veggies and fruit
    • Smoking
  • Prevention
    • Sigmoidoscopy
      • Over 50 years, one every 3-5 yrs
    • Digital rectal exam
      • Looking for blood in the stool
    • Low dose ASA
      • Decreases rates of polyps
skin cancer
Skin Cancer
  • 96% cure rate with early detection versus
  • 16 % with late detection
  • Most common type of cancer
  • One million cases diagnosed per year in the US
  • 10,590 deaths per year in US
skin cancer41
Skin Cancer
  • Basal cell carcinoma
    • Most common type, one million new cases/yr
    • 80% of new cases of skin cancer
    • Found in areas exposed to the sun, face, neck, arms, ears, hands
    • Small bump on skin that may bleed or crust over
skin cancer44
Skin Cancer
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
    • Second most common
    • 16% of new cases
    • On ears, face, lips, mouth
    • Red, scaly patches
skin cancer46
Skin Cancer
  • Melanoma
    • 4% of cases
    • 50,000 per year diagnosed in US
      • 5000 cases/yr in California
    • 7700 die each year
      • Most common cancer in women between 25-29
    • Most dangerous and spreads rapidly
    • Found mainly on back, chest, abdomen, legs
    • Brown or black spot or bump
    • Irregular color or shape
    • Bleeds easily
skin cancer47
Skin Cancer
  • Risk factors for melanoma
    • Blistering sunburn before the age of 20
    • U/V radiation through sun exposure or tanning beds
    • Family or personal history of melanoma
    • Fair complexion
    • Blue or green eyes
    • Blond or red hair
    • People with numerous moles
sun protection
Sun Protection
  • SPF 15 for face and lips
  • 90% of visible aging due to the sun
  • Avoid sun between 10-3
  • Apply sunscreen 30 min. before exposure
    • Reapply every 2 hours
    • Use sunscreen with UVA and UVB protection
  • Wear protective clothing
  • Avoid tanning salons
    • Visiting tanning salon once or more a month increases the rate of melanoma by 55%
skin cancer53
Skin Cancer
  • Early detection
    • A – asymmetry
    • B – border
      • Irregular, notched, scallop, jagged
    • C – color
      • More then one color, brown and black
    • D – diameter
      • Larger then 6 mm, size of the tip of a pencil eraser
  • Treatment
    • Surgery
    • Chemotherapy
general prevention
General Prevention
  • Diet
    • 5-6 servings per day of fruit and veggies
    • Low fat
    • Reduce amount of high fat red meat
    • Increase fiber
      • Provides bulk to quickly move food through colon
        • Decreases rate of colon cancer
    • Eliminate salt cured foods
      • Bacon, ham, sausage, lunch meats, hot dogs
      • Use nitrates to preserve pink color, but linked to cancer
    • Increase fish
general prevention56
General Prevention
  • Obesity
    • Accounts for 14% of cancer in men and 20% cancer in women
    • Fat leads to overproduction of estrogen and steroid hormones linked to breast, endocrine cancer
    • Leads to increase insulin production associated with cancer
    • Linked to colon, rectal, prostate, endometrial, kidney and breast cancer
general prevention57
General Prevention
  • Alcohol
    • Related tocancer of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, larynx, liver
    • Heavy drinkers who smoke have a 15 times increase risk of developing cancer then non-smokers and non-drinkers
general prevention58
General Prevention
  • Drugs
    • Estrogen linked to uterine and breast cancer
    • DES
  • Pollution
    • Contaminated water
    • Asbestos
7 warning signs
7 Warning Signs
  • C hange in bowel or bladder habits
  • A sore that does not heal
  • U nusual bleeding or discharge
  • T hickening or lump in the breast
  • I ndigestion or difficulty swallowing
  • O bvious change or discharge in a mole
  • N agging cough or hoarseness
steps to decrease risk of cancer
Steps to Decrease Risk of Cancer
  • Stop smoking
  • Alcohol in moderation
  • Eat more vegetables
  • Eat high fiber foods
  • Eat more foods with vitamin A, C
  • Avoid obesity
  • Decrease fat in diet
  • Eat fewer salt cured, smoked or nitrate cured foods
  • Stay out of the sun
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