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Why Imperialism?. Europe showing economic benefits of imperialism New markets in rare resources from Africa & Asia Yellow journalism Increased public interest in foreign “ exotic and adventurous ” lands Missionaries Wanted to “ save ” un-Christian natives of these lands

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Why imperialism
Why Imperialism?

  • Europe showing economic benefits of imperialism

    • New markets in rare resources from Africa & Asia

  • Yellow journalism

    • Increased public interest in foreign “exotic and adventurous” lands

  • Missionaries

    • Wanted to “save” un-Christian natives of these lands

      • Reverend Josiah Strong leader of movement

  • Capt. Alfred Thayer Mahan’s “Influence of Sea Power Upon History”

    • Stressed that key to power is through the navy

    • Effect of book:

      • U.S. starts building up Navy

      • Stronger navy allows for imperialism

Why imperialism1
Why Imperialism?

  • Widely believed social theories:

  • Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” theory:

    • Weaker nations will wither away due to course of nature

    • Thus, it’s only natural for stronger nations to conquer the weak

  • Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden”:

    (Read the poem silently and turn to a partner to discuss it’s meaning)

    • Theorized that “white” Europe and America have a responsibility to colonize to “help” the weaker nations

      • Thus make own nation stronger

  • Both used as justification for imperialism

International Incidents & PoliciesHow does each push America towards imperialism and the need for a strong navy?

  • James G. Blaine’s “Big Brother” (AKA “Big Sister”) policy

    • U.S. responsibility to protect Latin America

  • 1882 – Blaine leads Pan-American Conference

    • U.S. mediates disputes between Latin American countries

      Push towards imperialism/navy?

  • Goals for Blaine were imperialistic:

    • Make Latin America supportive and reliant on U.S.

    • Allow U.S. to have direct influence in Latin American politics

  • 1888 – Standoff: USA vs. Germany over Samoa

    • Result: Samoa split in half

  • 1891 – Standoff: USA vs. Italy – 11 Italian immigrants lynched in New Orleans

    • Result: USA made payments to Italian families

      Push towards imperialism/navy?

      Navy needed strengthening in case of war

  • 1889 – Standoff: USA vs. Britain after gold is discovered in Guiana (Venezuelan region)

    • Britain attempts to take over and mine gold – Issue?

    • Breaking the Monroe Doctrine

    • Result:

      • Venezuela pleads with U.S. for help

      • U.S. steps in and sticks up for “little sister”

  • Britain backs down, war narrowly avoided

    Push towards imperialism/navy?

    • Strengthens Latin American dependence on U.S.

    • Navy needed strengthening in case of war


  • American “economic imperialism” present in Hawaii since early 1800s

    • Fruit and sugar companies had lots of power over islands due to economic power

    • Hawaii regarded as a “little sister” as well

  • Reasons for imperialism:

    • Companies feared Japan might try to take over

    • Resistance of native Hawaiians growing

    • McKinley’s high import tax was hurting American companies in Hawaii

  • Solution?

    • Annex Hawaii

Hawaii s annexation
Hawaii’s Annexation?

  • Queen Liliuokalani refused

    to give up power

    • 1893 – Americans in Hawaii

      & dethrone Queen with

      some U.S. military help

  • President Grover Cleveland upset by non-diplomatic methods

    • Refused to sign off on annexation

    • Temporary republic set up by business owners

  • Hawaii eventually annexed in 1898 by McKinley


  • 1895 – Cubans revolt against Spain

  • American roots for Cuba – why?

    • Supports the Monroe Doctrine policy

    • Cuba valuable for ports and location

    • Sentimental of American revolution

  • Spanish General Weyler sent to stop revolt

    • Harsh tactics: concentration camps for “insurrectos”

Effect of yellow journalism
Effect of Yellow Journalism

  • Hearst & Pulitzer portray Weyler as super villain

    • Embellished pictures outrage Americans

  • The de Lome letter

    • Stolen letter written by Spanish diplomat insulting McKinley is published in Hearst’s newspapers

    • Americans angered

  • The U.S.S. Maine explosion (1898)

    • Ship explodes in Havana harbor killing 258 American sailors

    • Cause of explosion unknown but the yellow press blamed Spain

    • American public demanded war for revenge on Spain

  • McKinley reluctantly gives in, Congress declares war April 1898

    • Teller Amendment – U.S. promises not to annex Cuba after war

Spanish american war
Spanish-American War

  • Spanish-American War

    • War heavily supported by the public

    • America overconfident and underprepared

    • Poor planning on both sides

War in the pacific
War in the Pacific

  • Secretary of the Navy Teddy Roosevelt sees chance for imperialistic gains

  • Roosevelt orders Commodore George Dewey to attack Spain in the Philippines

    • May 1, 1898 – Dewey attacks and first battle of war ensues

    • 10 aged Spanish ships vs. 6 modern American ships

    • Very one-sided naval battle – America wins naval battle

      • Unprepared: couldn’t invade – must wait on foot soldier reinforcements

      • Aug 13 – U.S. captures Manila from Spain with help of Filipino insurgents against Spain

    • Americans save Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo from exile to help fight Spain

  • Now with U.S. controlling Philippines, a coaling station needed between Southeast Asia & California…

    • Hawaii officially annexed in 1898

War in the caribbean
War in the Caribbean

  • U.S. led by Gen. William Shafter

  • Teddy Roosevelt resigns from Sec. of Navy to fight in war

    • Organizes “Rough Riders” cavalry – horseless cavalry

    • Unprepared: couldn’t get horses from ships to shore

  • Spain sends fleet to Santiago’s narrow harbor

    • Mistake: creates a gauntlet for Spain to get in or out

  • U.S. sends ships and troops to Santiago

    • Unprepared: soldiers issued wool uniforms – suffer in extreme summer heat

    • U.S. navy blockades harbor and soldiers surrounded the Spanish from the other side of the harbor

    • Spain tries to run gauntlet out of the harbor and gets mowed down by the U.S. navy

  • U.S. easily takes Spanish-owned Puerto Rico and Guam too

  • Spain surrenders and signs armistice by August 1898

Aftermath of spanish american war
Aftermath of Spanish American War

  • Effects of the “Splendid Little War”

    • Unprepared: poor medical planning – more soldiers (5,000) will die of disease than in battle (4,000)

    • U.S. seen as a rising world power

    • North vs. South tension disappears a bit

      • Common enemy was the Spaniards, not each other

  • Teddy Roosevelt rises to fame

  • Post-war treaty proposed:

    • Cuba would be free

    • U.S. would gain Puerto Rico, Guam, and control of Philippines

  • What to do with all these countries?


  • Promised freedom to Cuba, but America wanted to ensure a stable government would take power:

    • Temporary military government led by Col. Leonard Wood

    • Sets up Cuban government, education system, agriculture

    • Makes medical advancements to combat rampant disease

  • U.S. leaves Cuba by 1902 – creates Platt Agreement:

    • U.S. approves all Cuban treaties

    • U.S. could intervene if Cuban economy crashes

    • U.S. military owns one coaling station in Cuba

      • Guantanamo Bay

Puerto rico
Puerto Rico

  • Retained as an unincorporated territory of the U.S.

    • Issue: Do American laws apply here?

    • Series of “Insular Cases” taken to Supreme Court

    • Supreme Court declares American laws don’t extend to these new lands

  • Improvements made in sanitation, transportation, education, etc

  • Foraker Act gives P.R. limited elected government

  • 1917 – Puerto Ricans granted full U.S. citizenship

    • Many freely move to New York City

The philippines dilemma
The Philippines Dilemma

  • Big issue at treaty talks: “What to do with the Philippines?”

  • Give back to Spain?

    • Spain ruled harshly and abusive of natives

  • Let Filipinos rule themselves?

    • Could result in chaos due to rival warlords

  • U.S. takes over the country?

    • Would make U.S. look like imperial bullies

    • Angry Filipinos willing to fight for freedom

  • McKinley decides to take over Philippines           

    • Swayed by yellow press’s effect on public opinion and imperialist business owners

    • $20 million paid to Spain for Philippines

The philippines dilemma1
The Philippines Dilemma

  • Senate still needs to approve treaty – debate ensues:

    • Anti-Imperialist League lobby against annexation:

      • Unlike Hawaii or Alaska, Philippines had a heavily resistant population and out of U.S. “jurisdiction”

    • Imperialists lobby for annexation:

      • “The White Man’s Burden” used as justification

  • Treaty approved by one vote in Senate

Filipino resistance
Filipino Resistance

  • Filipinos felt deceived by USA, wanted independence

    • Feb 4, 1899 – Emilio Aguinaldo leads uprising – ironic?

  • Philippine-American War

    • Fighting lasts for over a year

    • America uses cruel tactics to suppress Filipinos

    • American soldiers die more from disease than battle

  • Diplomatic solutions taken

    • William H. Taft sent to serve as civil governor of Philippines

    • Taft well liked by Filipinos

Filipino resistance1
Filipino Resistance

  • Taft institutes “benevolent assimilation” policy:

    • Goal was to caringly help and improve the Philippines

    • Millions of American dollars invested in Filipino infrastructure:

      • Sanitation, roads, education, economy, healthcare

  • Fighting fades away, but desire for independence still alive

  • Philippines not granted freedom until 1946.

Imperialized china
Imperialized China

  • Separated into “spheres of influence” by Europe

    • Various European countries had exclusive trade rights in coastal cities of China

  • American business wants in on China’s natural resources

  • Sec. of State John Hay drafts “Open Door Policy”

    • Suggests that Chinese cities should be open to all nations for trade – ban all exclusive trade rights

  • Europe not willing to compromise

  • 1899 – China’s Boxer Rebellion against foreigners quelled by combined forces of Europe and America

  • Open Door Policy now accepted at treaty talks

  • America now has open and lucrative trade with China

Election of 1896
Election of 1896

  • Issues:

    • Base currency off gold, silver, or both?

    • Demands of working class vs. worried upper classes

  • Reps nominate William McKinley

    • “Safe” choice: Civil War vet, good Congressional record, pro-tariff, friendly and likeable

    • Very pro-business

  • Dems nominate William Jennings Bryan

    • “Boy orator of the Platte”

    • Young (36), great speaker & debater from Nebraska

    • Anti-tariff, used Populist Party’s main platform: coin more silver

      • Populists started joining the Democrats:

        • “Dem-Pop” Party

  • McKinley exploits economic fears of country, drums up far more campaign money

  • McKinley easily wins election

  • Results & effects of election?

    • Currency will be based on gold, not silver

    • Victory for business owners and upper classes

President william mckinley
President William McKinley

  • Very safe and cautious with his decisions

    • Made decisions based off public opinion

    • Two issues: gold vs. silver & fix economy

  • Dingley Tariff Act (1897) – significantly raised tariff to 46%

    • Goal was to increase revenue & fix economy after Panic of 1893

    • Cleveland’s low Wilson-Gorman Tariff deemed ineffective

  • Gold Standard Act (1900)

    • Allowed for people to trade paper money for gold

    • More symbolic than anything

    • Giving people the option brought calmness and confidence in the economy

  • Gold discovered in Alaska causes inflation

    • Helps lower classes


  • McKinley successful in fixing economy

    • Country pulled out of recession

    • Pro-business policies, inflation from gold discovery, gold vs. silver debate solved…

  • Allows for calmness and confidence in economy

    • Calmness and confidence →economic growth

    • Uncertainty in economy → hinders growth

The Rise of Imperialism

  • Europe had been colonizing in Africa and Asia for most of the 1800s

  • Isolationist America turning towards imperialism now

Election of 1900
Election of 1900

  • Rematch between McKinley and William Jennings Bryan

  • Mudslinging:

    • Bryan: McKinley is an imperialist bully and war monger

    • McKinley: Bryan as president would kill American prosperity

  • McKinley chose famous and beloved Teddy Roosevelt as VP

  • McKinley is easily reelected…

  • McKinley shot and killed 6 months into second term

    • Assassin was a disgruntled anarchist

    • Secret Service reassigned to full-time duty of protecting presidents and politicians

President theodore roosevelt
President Theodore Roosevelt

  • AKA “Teddy” or “TR”

  • Short, brawny New Yorker, Harvard grad

  • Theory of role: a president should lead, not supervise

  • Motto: “Speak softly and carry a big stick”

    • Ironic because TR was boisterous, stubborn, and temperamental

  • BELOVED by the public – why?

    • Press often portrayed him a spunky, cartoonish, war-hero

Imperialist teddy panama canal
Imperialist Teddy: Panama Canal

  • TR wants canal in Central America built – why?

    • Would greatly benefit trade and power of navy

    • French engineer Philippe Bunau-Varilla hired

  • Obstacles:

    • European jurisdictions

    • Location of canal: Nicaragua? Panama?

    • Panama chosen, but is part of Columbia – refused to give up land

The panama canal
The Panama Canal

  • Bunau-Varilla incited Panama rebellion in 1901

  • U.S. Navy helps Panama in wining independence from Columbian “tyrants”

    • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty signed between Panama and U.S.

  • Approves construction and lease of canal to U.S

  • Panama Canal completed in 1914

    • Obstacles of sanitation, disease, and overwhelming engineering task overcome

    • Construction led by George Washington Goethals

U s latin america relations damaged
U.S.-Latin America Relations Damaged

  • Canal causes major tension because of “Big Stick Policy”

    • Bullying techniques used to cause war between Panama and Columbia

  • Latin American countries consistently behind in repaying debts to Europe

  • TR worried Europe would intervene – problem?

    • Violates Monroe Doctrine

    • Creates the “Roosevelt Corollary”

    • Amendment to Monroe Doctrine stating U.S. will intervene and collect debts for Europe

  • U.S. significantly intervenes in Cuba in 1906, and later Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic

  • TR’s “Big Stick Policy” contradicts the intended “Good Neighbor Policy”

  • Latin American relations with U.S. deteriorate

Teddy the peacemaker
Teddy the Peacemaker

  • 1905 – TR asked to mediate treaty talks after Russo-Japanese War

    • Both Japan and Russia unhappy with results, especially Japan

    • Relations between all three countries decline

  • 1906 – TR successfully mediates a dispute in North Africa

  • Wins Nobel Peace Prize for peace-making work

Rocky relations with japan
Rocky Relations with Japan

  • Japan bitter after TR’s mediation

  • Small number of Japanese laborers begin to migrate to California

    • “Yellow peril” sweeps through state thanks to influence of press

  • 1906 – Asian immigrants segregated from SF Schools

  • Japan outraged at treatment of Japanese in California – talks of war

    • TR makes “Gentleman’s Agreement” to end issue

    • Asian segregation in schools ends, Japan halts emigration to U.S.

  • TR worried agreement makes America look weak

  • Sends the “Great White Fleet” on “diplomatic good-will mission”…

    • Subtly shows power of U.S. military

  • U.S. and Japan sign Root-Takahira agreement – respect for each other’s territories

Progressive party rises
Progressive Party Rises

  • New reform movement gaining influence – “Progressives”

    • Roots from Greenback Party (1870s) and Populist Party (1890s)

  • Goal: to achieve social justice by using government as an “agency of human welfare”

  • Calling for more government intervention, less “laissez-faire” capitalism

  • 1902 – “Muckrakers” emerge – writers and social critics exposing corruption and injustice through newspapers and magazines

    • “Cosmopolitan”Magazine

    • “The Shame of Cities”by Lincoln Steffens

Who was the progressive party
Who was the Progressive Party?

  • Mostly made up of middle class

    • Felt squashed between business tycoons at top and working class at bottom

  • Political reforms wanted:

    • Initiative and referendum – public can propose & vote on laws

    • Recall – voters can remove elected officials

    • Secret ballot – ensures free and fair voting

    • Female suffrage

Women s movement
Women’s Movement

  • Lillian Ward & Jane Addams lead suffrage movement

    • Create “Hull House” in Chicago to help working class and immigrants

  • Women’s rights gaining strength through legislation:

    • 1908 – Muller v. Oregon – extra laws to protect female workers deemed constitutional

    • 1911 – Triangle Shirtwaist Fire – new motion for laws for better hours, conditions, safety, and worker compensation

  • Prohibition Movement

    • Anti-Saloon League join Woman’s Christian Temperance Movement

    • Well-organized, well-financed

    • Many states started banning alcohol

      • Half of Americans by 1914 live in “dry” areas

    • 1919 – 18th Amendment passes “Prohibition”

      • Alcohol sale, consumption, and possession banned

Teddy the progressive
Teddy the Progressive

  • TR deeply influenced by “muckrakers” progressivism – ironic?

    • TR created the derogatory name

  • Teddy calls platform: “The Square Deal”:

    • Vows to accomplish the “Three C’s”:

      • Control corporations

      • Consumer protection

      • Conservation of natural resources

1 st c control the corporations
1st C: Control the Corporations

  • Creates the Dept. of Commerce and Labor

    • Bureau of Corporations responsible for:

    • Investigating interstate trade

    • Stops railroad corruption & bullying

    • Breaking up monopolies (AKA “trusts”)

  • Teddy the “Trust buster”

    • TR proudly begins to break up monopolies

    • Disbands over 40 “bad” trusts

      • Biggest was JP Morgan’s trust

    • “Good” trusts were allowed to operate

2 nd c consumer protection
2nd C: Consumer Protection

  • 1906 – “The Jungle”by Upton Sinclair exposes horrible conditions of meat packing industry

    • Has major influence on public and Congress

  • 1906 – Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act both passed

    • Proper labeling techniques, inspection, prevents tampering

    • Results in increased exports of American meat

3 rd c conservation of natural resources
3rd C: Conservation of Natural Resources

  • By 1900, America realizing natural resources not unlimited

  • TR leads conservation movement

    • 1902 – Newlands Act – massive irrigation projects in West

    • TR lawfully protects 125 million acres of forest

  • TR still a pragmatist over a conservationist

    • Example: HetchHetchy Valley in Yosemite

    • Leads to a philosophical split

The roosevelt panic of 1907
The “Roosevelt Panic” of 1907

  • Sudden sharp economic downturn

  • Beloved Teddy solely blamed

  • Congress passes Aldrich-Vreeland Act (1908)

    • Authorizes national banks to release money into circulation

    • An elastic supply of currency could now help during recessions

    • Would lead to the Federal Reserve Act (1913)

Election of 1908
Election of 1908

  • TR still very popular announced he would not run for a third term

    • Endorses a similar-minded politician

  • William Taft is Rep. Nominee

    • Taft was BIG and very likeable

  • William Jennings Bryan is Dem. Nominee for 3rd time

  • Taft easily wins election

    • Much help from TR’s popularity

  • Socialist Party candidate Eugene Debs gets 3% of popular vote – significance?

    • Debs rose to fame in Pullman Strike in Chicago

    • Sign of the times: social justice movement

Teddy s legacy
Teddy’s Legacy

  • Brought big business under control

  • Increases role of presidency

  • Passes wide range of reform

  • Showed U.S. was a world power

    • Therefore U.S. had “major responsibility” TR stressed

President william h taft
President William H. Taft

  • Taft was well-liked, but less like TR than expected:

    • Hands-off approach to leading

    • Mildly progressive

    • Desired stability rather than reform

  • Taft pushed “Dollar Diplomacy” policy:

    • America would strategically invest in foreign countries to gain power

    • Therefore, U.S. could gain power and money simultaneously

    • Very different from TR’s Big Stick Policy

  • Dollar Diplomacy in action:

    • Purchase of Chinese railroads fail – blocked by Russia & Japan

    • U.S. heavily invests in Latin America

    • U.S. now responsible for maintaining stability in Latin America

Taft the trustbuster
Taft the Trustbuster

  • Taft “out-busts” TR – 90 trusts disbanded in his term

    • Biggest was Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company

  • Taft attempts to break up U.S. Steel Company

    • TR had deemed it one of the “good trusts”

    • Taft refuses to halt investigation, TR furious

Republicans split
Republicans Split

  • “Old, traditional” Reps vs. “New, progressive” Reps

  • 2 big dividing issues: the tariff & conservation

    • Old Reps: high tariff, develop land for economic benefit

    • New Reps: low tariff, conserve lands

  • Taft promised to lower tariff during campaigning

    • Signs Payne-Aldrich Bill which raises tariff

    • Further splits Rep. Party

  • Taft allows for Wyoming, Montana, Alaska to be open for development

    • Very unpopular with public

  • Who’s bound to gain power from this split?

    • Democrats win heavily in Congressional Elections in 1910

The taft roosevelt rupture
The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture

  • The Republican Party officially splits:

    • 1911 – National Progressive Republican League

    • Led by Senator Robert La Follette

  • Roosevelt so upset by Taft’s presidency, he decides to run again

  • Progressive Republican Party nominates TR

  • June 1912 – Republican Presidential Convention

    • Taft vs. Roosevelt, winner would run as Rep. nominee for president

    • Convention votes on Taft – why?

    • Incumbent, fear public wouldn’t vote for a 3rd term president

  • Teddy refused to step aside, vows to run as a 3rd party candidate

Election of 1912
Election of 1912

  • Republican Party nominates Taft

  • Progressive Party nominates Roosevelt

    • “Bull Moose Party”

  • Democratic Party nominates Dr. Woodrow Wilson

    • Governor of New Jersey

    • Very progressive minded

  • Two Major Platforms:

    • Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism”

      • Only disband “bad” trusts, female suffrage, social welfare programs

    • Wilson’s “New Freedom”

      • Disband all trusts, supported small business

  • Mudslinging and incident:

    • Major mudslinging between Taft and Roosevelt

    • Roosevelt shot on campaign trail, survives

Election of 19121
Election of 1912

  • Wilson wins easily

    • Popular vote:

    • Wilson: 42%

    • Roosevelt: 28%

    • Taft: 23%

  • Why is this significant?

    • Majority wanted a Republican president, not Wilson

  • Taft retires from politics, goes to law school

    • Becomes Chief Justice of Supreme Court in 1921

  • Teddy goes on expedition of South Africa

  • Side note: Eugene Debs (Socialist) gets 6% of popular vote

President woodrow wilson
President Woodrow Wilson

  • Born and raised in South, very intelligent, deeply religious, believed president should lead

    • Very different than TR:

  • Stubborn idealist, not a pragmatist

    • Sometimes detrimental to achieving goals

    • Not a people’s person

    • A Progressive President…

  • Wilson vows to tear down “triple wall of privilege”:

    • The tariff, the banks, the trusts

Domestic triple wall of privilege
Domestic: “Triple Wall of Privilege”

  • Major reforms made:

  • Tariffs: The Underwood Tariff (1913)

    • Reduced tariffs on imports

    • Initiated a graduated income tax

  • Banking: Federal Reserve Act (1913)

    • Creates appointed Federal Reserve Board

    • Oversee 12 regional, federal banks

    • Issue paper money to regulate amount of currency in circulation

    • Made conservative appointments to Board to keep business tycoons happy

  • Trusts: Federal Trade Commission Act (1914)

    • Investigates activities of trust

    • Goal: stop crooked business practices affecting consumers

    • Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) also passed

      • Forbade price discrimination, interlocking directorates, helped union rights

Domestic wilsonian progressivism
Domestic: “Wilsonian Progressivism”

  • Follows up with several reforms:

    • Protection for farmers

    • Better treatment and pay for sailors

  • Paved way for better worker’s rights:

    • Worker’s Compensation Act (1916)

    • Adamson Act (1916)

      • 8-hour workday and overtime

  • Made small steps toward ethnic equality

    • Appoints Louis Brandeis, first Jewish Supreme Justice

    • Little done for African Americans during progressivism

      • W.E.B. Du Bois created National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

International wilson s foreign policy
International: Wilson’s Foreign Policy

  • Wilson a pacifist and anti-imperialist:

    • Blocked American involvement in mass loan to China

    • Got Congress to repeal Panama Canal Tolls Act (1912)

      • American ships now had to pay tolls

    • Jones Act (1916) granting territorial status of Philippines

      • Promises independence when stable government is established

    • Defused situation with Japan over treatment of Japanese in California

    • Purchases Virgin Islands from Denmark for protective reasons

      • United States Virgin Islands

International wilson s foreign policy1
International: Wilson’s Foreign Policy

  • Wilson a pacifist and anti-imperialist:

    • Why might this have a dangerous outcome on America internationally?

    • America already had many businesses and land overseas

      • From Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy

      • Abandoning them?

  • Forced to send Marines to protect American investments in Haiti and Dom. Rep. after violence erupts

  • Mexican Revolution…

Mexican revolution 1910
Mexican Revolution (1910)

  • Extremely poor and oppressed population revolts

    • Political chaos breaks out among rival warlords

    • Mass immigration to Southwestern U.S. ensues

  • Fearing war, Wilson declines to protect American businesses

    • Rebel Pancho Villa despises American business in Mexico

    • Raids and kills 16 American engineers

    • Kills 19 more in near border in New Mexico

  • Wilson sends in Army to catch Pancho Villa

    • Meet resistance from rival Mexican armies

    • Troops called back to U.S. in 1914 – why?

    • WWI starts, never catch Pancho Villa