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World History. 5/19/14. Warm-up. Write the major event regarding French government in each of these years. 1830 1832 1848 1852 1870. Franco-Prussian War. 1868 Spanish Revolution: overthrow the Queen, meaning they need a new monarch.

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World history

World History


Warm up

  • Write the major event regarding French government in each of these years.

    • 1830

    • 1832

    • 1848

    • 1852

    • 1870

Franco prussian war
Franco-Prussian War

  • 1868 Spanish Revolution: overthrow the Queen, meaning they need a new monarch.

  • They search for a new monarch—the French don’t want it to be a German prince.

  • Tensions between France and Prussia lead to war—German states support Prussia

  • This 1870 war finalizes Prussian unification into…GERMANY

What if

  • Napoleon III had ignored Wilhelm I’s warmongering & just waited to see what happened in Spain?

  • Wilhelm & Bismarck may not have seized French land or united the German Empire—no World War I or World War II!

But let s backtrack a little
But let’s backtrack a little…

  • Congress of Vienna (1815): meeting establishing peace after Napoleon

  • Led by Klemens von Metternich

Klemens von metternich
Klemens von Metternich

  • Wealthy politician—wanted to return Europe to pre-1789 conditions.

  • Against republics, voting, & freedom of the people.

  • Why does he hate these new governments?

Impact of congress of vienna metternich
Impact of Congress Of Vienna & Metternich

  • Attempt to balance powers within Europe—boundaries are changed to keep another superpower from emerging.

  • Metternich’s policies of oppression and absolutism lead to revolutions around the continent.

Prince metternich
Prince Metternich

  • “The old Europe is nearing its end.”

4 th period
4th period

  • After the Congress of Vienna in ____, Klemens von Metternich encouraged __________________________. This led to __________________________.

Post napoleonic europe
Post-Napoleonic Europe

  • Read about Post-Napoleonic Europe.

  • Summarize each heading in a few sentences.

Choose one of the following
Choose one of the following

  • Create a poster for Young Italy.

    • What is your cause?

    • Who is involved? Who are you recruiting?

  • Write your own version of the Blood & Iron speech.

    • What were Bismarck’s opinions at the time?

    • How would he have expressed them?

Essential question 1
Essential Question 1

  • Which leaders were most pivotal in changing the political organization of Europe after Napoleon?

Pre wwi events
Pre-WWI events

  • Lots of events around the globe—keep the EQ in mind.

The ottoman empire
The Ottoman Empire

  • The Ottoman Empire never returned to its glory after Suleiman the Magnificent

  • What would happen to the balance of power if they collapsed? This is called the Eastern Question.

  • France & Great Britain prop up the empire.

Crimean war
Crimean War

  • Ottomans control Jerusalem & give Roman Catholics control of the holy places there.

  • Orthodox Russia invades the Ottoman Empire. France & England help the Ottomans.

  • Lasts two years—Russians lose in a bloody war.

  • First use of railways, telegraphs, & ironclads!

  • Florence Nightingale: famous British nurse who saved many. 10x lower death rate than other hospitals.

Balkan wars
Balkan Wars

  • Rise of nationalism led to discontent in the Ottoman Empire.

  • 1912 & 1913: four Balkan nations win independence from the Ottomans (Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, & Montenegro)

Britain in india
Britain in India

  • Mughal Empire is collapsing and Europeans have new, effective weapons.

  • British East India Company (a business!) controls India.

  • Introduce the English language, ban Indian customs, and spread Christianity.

  • 1857: Sepoy Mutiny (sepoys = Indian soldiers in British army)

    • Two years of fighting before the British government steps in and rules India directly.

British raj
British Raj

  • Raj: Hindi word for “rule”

  • British Raj industrializes India—railroads needed for trade.

  • Indian nationalism begins; resentful of British changes

  • Indian National Congress founded to request better representation

  • Nationalism becomes radical—swadeshi (boycott of British goods) from 1905-1908.

  • Muslim League: Muslim Indians, not Hindus like INC, to advocate for India

  • Indian National Congress + Muslim League = desire for independence in coming years.

China foreign influence
China & foreign influence

  • Qing dynasty is losing power; British begin to exert influence over China.

  • British trade opium (drug) to China in return for tea and other goods. Leads to Opium Wars, which expand foreign influence in China.

  • Rebellions in 1850s against the Qing: Taiping Rebellion

    • Hong Xiuquan vs. Qing leaders; lasted from 1850-1864 and killed 20 million Chinese

  • Qing come out on top and decide to reform government; leads to industrialization

Chinese rebellions
Chinese Rebellions

  • Boxer Rebellion: 1899-1900

    • Hatred of foreign influence which led to killing of missionaries and Christian converts.

    • Government supports Boxers, but they are defeated by an alliance of foreigner armies.

  • Xinhai (1911) Revolution: led by Sun Yat-sen

    • Belief in nationalism, democracy, & unity

    • Qing overthrown due to weakness, resentment, & foreign influence

    • Republic of China founded in 1912

Meiji restoration
Meiji Restoration

  • In Japan, the Tokugawa Shogunate allows too much foreign influence. This leads to the rule of Emperor Meiji & the Meiji Restoration.

  • Beginning in 1868, Japan begins to industrialize and build an empire.

  • Japan’s economic power rivals the U.S.; they defeat China and Russia in wars to become the most powerful Asian country.

Scramble for africa
Scramble for Africa

  • European countries try to gain political control of the continent from 1880-1914.

  • Imperialism & nationalism fueled the desire of European countries to gain more colonies than others.

  • 1884-1885: Berlin Conference—European leaders divide up Africa based on their own interests. Don’t pay attention to ethnic divisions.

  • Africans resist: Shaka & Zulus lose to British; Menelik II & Ethiopians maintain independence against the Italians.

Berlin conference
Berlin Conference

  • Yellow: Belgian

  • Red: British

  • Blue: French

  • Green: German

  • Neon Green: Italian

  • Purple: Portuguese

  • Pink: Spanish

Foreign influence in latin america
Foreign influence in Latin America

  • Monroe Doctrine wanted to keep Europe out of the Americas.

  • Spanish colony of Cuba begins fighting for independence; advocate Jose Marti is killed.

  • Yellow journalism (sensationalist) is published against Spain.

  • U.S. battleship explodes in Havana, Cuba—Spanish obviously blamed.

  • Spanish-American War (1898): Spanish destroyed in three months.

  • U.S. (ironically) makes Cuba a protectorate, rather than an independent state.

American imperialism
American imperialism

  • Roosevelt Corollary: “Chronic wrongdoing…in the Western Hemisphere…may force the United States, however reluctantly…to the exercise of an international police power.”

  • Speak softly and carry a big stick.

  • Panama Canal—U.S. helps Panama achieve independence so they can build the canal & save 8,000 miles on journey from NYC to San Francisco.

Russian conditions
Russian conditions

  • Russia still ruled by tsars—absolute power.

  • Agricultural society (not yet industrialized); serfs are abused

  • Pogroms occur—waves of violent attacks on Jews (blamed for the assassination of Tsar Alexander II)

Russo japanese war
Russo-Japanese War

  • Japan’s empire views Russia as a threat.

  • Two sides are competing for Manchuria and Korea.

  • Japan attacks Russia.

  • Tsar Nicholas II continues fighting for too long; people are unhappy and Russia loses.

Russian revolution of 1905
Russian Revolution of 1905

  • Socialist ideas of Marx spread to Russia

  • Vladimir Lenin begins to call for an end to the autocratic government.

  • Jan. 22, 1905: “Bloody Sunday”

    • Russian protestors fired upon; hundreds killed

  • Strikes shut down the Trans-Siberian Railroad

  • Nicholas II writes the October Manifesto—more freedom for Russians & a representative body called the Duma.

  • Nicholas II still retains a lot of power, though…

Essential question 2
Essential Question 2

  • What factors fueled events in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?

Main factors
MAIN factors

  • There were four MAIN factors that led up to World War I:

    • Militarism

    • Alliances

    • Imperialism

    • Nationalism